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plants of t\)t £opai Garfcenss of &?&> 







{Or VoLLXXXII. of the Whole Work.) 

" Not a flower 
But shows some touch, in freckle, streak, or stain. 
Of His unrivalled pencil." 










E\}t present Uolume is Enscrtfcetf 



Royal Gardens, Kew, 
December 1, 1856. 

Tab. 4891. 

Flame-coloured JEschgnanthus. 

Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace.*:. — Didynamia Gymnospermia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4236.) 

J^schynanthus fulgent ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutninatis carnosis integer- 
rimis, petiolo brcvi crassissimo, pedicellis unifloris in umbellam terminalem 
plurifloram dispositis, calyois ampli laxi tubidoso-infuridibuliformis limbo 
B-lobo, lobis scqualibus acutis erecto-patentibus, corolla? calycem triplo ex- 
cedentis clavatse (coccinese) tubo gracili limbo obliquo, staminibus styloque 

vEschynanthus fulgens. Wall. Cat. n. 797. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 261. 

Our volumes are rich in species of jEschynantlms not less beau- 
tiful than the present: witness our Tab. 3845, JE. grandiflorus, 
Don ; Tab. 4261, JE. Lobbianus, Nob. ; Tab. 4264, jE.pulclicr, 
De Cand. ; and Tab. 4503, jE. Javanicus. Of all these, our 
present species is the most closely allied to the first-mentioned, 
viz. J3. grandiflorus, especially in the singularly clavate form 
of the corolla : but in that species the arrangement of the 
flowers is very different ; the tube of the corolla is comparatively 
short and broad, filling up as it were the entire calyx, and that 
has long acuminated appressed lobes, — to say nothing of the 
leaves, which are narrow and serrated. The species here figured 
is a native of Tavoy, whence we have specimens from Dr. Wallich, 
gathered by M. Gomez. For our specimens here figured we are 
indebted to the Messrs. Veitch, of the Exeter and Chelsea Exotic 
Nurseries (with whom it flowered in October, 1855), having been 
collected at Moulmein by Mr. Thomas Lobb. It seems to blos- 
som freely, and few plants can exceed it in beauty, especially if 
suspended in a wire or small trellis basket. 

Descr. Stems thick, terete, straggling, slightly branched. 
Leaves opposite, large, bright and deep green, thick, fleshy, ob- 
long-lanceolate, approaching to ovate, acuminate, entire, a little 
carinated at the back ; nerves obsolete, or only visible in the older 

JANUAKY 1ST, 1856. 

leaves, where the parenchyma ti a little Bhrivelled, and where the 

edge is somewhat sinnated. 

collected into a terminal with only a 

pair of small leaves at ti i red. 

Calyx longer than the pedio cylindrical and infundi- 

buliform, lax (much wider than the tube of the corolla), its I 
erecto-patent, of five equal acute rat hi r smail lob 
thrice as long as the calyx, club-shaped : that is, with tlu- tube 
long and slender, gradually enlarged and widened upwards, la- 
terally compressed, contracted at the five-lobed and somewhat 
two-lipped limb, lower lobe longer and reflexed : colour of the 
corolla bright crimson, the lobes each marked with black li, 
Stamens did) namous, much exsertcd: tlu joined in pai 

Style also much exserted \a much dilated. 

Calyx and pistil, i. Pistil and bypogynotu cup - 

Erratum.— It should have been said under Tab. 4886, Demhohiu, 
Larthia, that the figure and description were communicated by Mr. Thwaites 
who has recently sent living plants to Kew, which have not yet had time to 
flower. J 


vVTitch del ( 


Tab. 4892. 
LAPAGERIA rosea : var. albiflora. 

Rose-coloured Lapayeria : white-flowered var. 

Nat. Ord. Smilacb/E. — Hexandbia Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4447.) 

Lapageria rosea. 

Lapagekia rosea. Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Perm, et CHI. v. 2>.p. 65. t. 297. Spreny. 

Syst. Veyet. v. 2. p. 99. Kunth, Emm. Plant, v. 5. p. 284. Walp. Ann. 

Bot. Syst. v. 3. p. 646. 
Var. albiflora; floribus albis basi subroseis immaculatis. (Tab. 4892.) 

Ill our anxiety to figure the Lapageria rosea in the ' Botanical 
Magazine ' as soon as the species was introduced to our gardens 
by Mr. Wheelwright and the Messrs. Veitch, of the Exeter and 
Chelsea Exotic Nurseries, we made use, as then acknowledged, 
of a coloured drawing by Mr. William Lobb, executed in Chili 
from the plant in loco natali ; and it was no small satisfaction to 
us to find, when the plants flowered with us, as they do abun- 
dantly in a cool and moist greenhouse (the temperate Fernery), 
that the colouring was extremely accurate ; that is, as regards 
the usual state of the plant. Ruiz and Pavon, however, ^had ob- 
served that the flowers vary from " rose to rose-crimson." 

In the Jardin des Plantes, at Paris, a fine healthy plant sent by 
M. Abadi from Chili, has produced large white flowers, approach- 
ing indeed to cream-colour, with a tinge of rose at the base : 
the flowerstalks each two- to three-flowered. Our artist being in 
Paris at the time, Professor Decaisne obligingly granted permis- 
sion for a figure to be taken of it for publication in this Magazine. 

The species being fully described under our Tab. 4447, we 
need not here say more than that besides the greater size and 
different colour of the flowers, the bracts are larger and greener 
upon the peduncles, covering them for their entire length. 

Fig. 1. Pistil :—nat. size. 2. Transverse section of ovary :— magnified. 

JANUARY 1ST, 1856. 


Tab. 4893. 


// 'rinkle-leaved Weigela. 

(li'ii. Char. (Pick supra, 4:}'.)»'>.) 

Weigbla amabilis; ramulia petiolis foliorum costis pubescent i-hirtis, folii< ora- 
lis obovatiave acuminatia reticulatim rugoaia inferne in petioliuu longiuacu- 
lum attenuatia, floribua axill&ribua aolitariia vel plurimia terminalibua umbel- 
latis aubaesailibua vel pedicellatis, pedicellia bibracteolatia, laciniia calycinia 
Linearibua erectia appreaaia ovariiaque biapidis, corolla tubo elongato limbi 
lobis sinunto-crcnatis. 

W kigelia amabilia. "Plattck. 27. des Serret, v. 8.;;. 855." 

At 'our Tub. 4396, under Weigela rosea, we expressed our 
doubts as to the propriety of separating Weigela, Lindley (Caly- 
sphyrum, Bunge), from DierviUa, with which Siebold and Zuc- 
carini, and, following them, Walpers, unite it; and doubting, too, 
as to //'. rosea being distinct from D. florida, Sieb. et Xucc. ; 
and, in reply to the query of a correspondent in the ' Gardeners' 
Chronicle (vol. for 1S53, p. 530), it is answered: "We are un- 
certain how many species of Weigela are known to botanists. In 
the garden we have W. rosea (just alluded to), //'. Minderdorfiana, 
If . amabilis, and W. lutea ; but the last i n alias of Dier- 

and we do not know how far the others are distinct. 
In books also occur //'. pauciflora and florida .- but the latter is 
nearly if not quite the same ." We have now to con- 

sider the question of the disi of the one under considera- 

tion from the last mentioned. Certainly, with flowering species 
ot each in our hand, the < •;. readily distinguish betwi 

them ; but with the exception of the stronger reticulation of the 
of the present plant, and the undulately ennate lobes 
ot the corolla, there is no character on which reliance can be 
placed : such as they are, we have included them in the specific 
and we regret we have not. the opportunity of consult- 
the' Flore drs £ is speci ibtished by 

M. Planchon. It is, we presume, like //". rosea, a native of China 


or Japan, but by whom introduced to Europe, we have no means 
of knowing. Eor our plants we are indebted to Messrs. Lowe, 
of the Clapton Nursery. 

Descr. A shrub, probably equally hardy with Weigela rosea 
(though our plant blossomed in a cool frame in May), and with 
entirely the same habit : the younger branches and foliage are 
more or less hairy. Leaves opposite, larger than those of W. 
rosea ; rather obovate than ovate, acuminated, serrated, tapering 
below into a moderately long petiole. The surface is much and 
reticulately veined, with impressed lines above, prominent on the 
nerves beneath. Flowers sessile, or on very short, simple petioles, 
bearing two opposite, minute bracts, solitary in the axils of the 
upper leaves, or in a terminal, many-flowered umbel, of beautiful 
rose-coloured flowers. Calyx hairy, the tube adherent with the 
ovary, so slender as to resemble a peduncle, angular : limb of five, 
erect, linear, appressed segments, unequal in height. Corolla 
with the tube narrow, scarcely longer than the segments of the 
calyx : the limb campanulate, cut into five, nearly equal, spread- 
ing, waved and crenated, obtuse, broadly ovate lobes : the tube is 
within hairy, and has a clavate, short, downy, conspicuous gland, 
attached to the base on one side. Stamens inserted at the top of 
the tube, shorter than the limb : anther oblongo-sagittatc. Style 
shorter than the corolla, included. Stigma two- to three-lobed, 
lobes downy. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Gland from the inner 
base of the tube of the corolla. 4. Transverse section of ovary : — magnified. 


Tab. 4894. 
OUVIRANDRA fenestralis. 

Water-Yam, or Lace-leaf. 

Nat. Ord. Juncagine^e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Opvirandra, P. Th. Mores hermaphroditi. Sepala 2 (unilateralia 
— 3, Bene.), colorata, decidua. Stamina 6, persistentia ; filamentis subulatis, in- 
terne dilatatis; antheris basi affixis, bilocularibus, lateralitcr dehiscentibus ; polline 
acute ellipsoideo. Ovaria 3-4, lagenaeformia, in stylum brevem, sligmate obliquo 
subapicali, facie interna notatum desinentia, unilocularia, 2-6-ovulata; ovidis 
basi affixis, adscendentibus, anatropis. Folliculi rostrati, abortu 1-3-spermis, 
introrsum deliiscentes. Semina exalbuminosa, testa herbacea, membrana in- 
teriore tenui. Embryo rectus, asceudens, cotyledoue crassa foliacea v. excavata 
plumulam maxhnam bifoliam amplectente. — Herbse aqitaticce, tuberculosa, caudice 
elongato ramoso, foliis radicalibus venosis submersis. Scapi elongati, spicas singulas 
biuas ternasve gerentes. Spatha caduca. Edgew. 

Ouvirandra fenestralis ; foliis submersis sublonge petiolatis oblongis fenestratis 
mucronulatis, nervis longitudinalibus apice contiuentibus, spicis binis. 

Ouvirandra fenestralis. Poiret, Encycl. Bot. Suppl. v. 4. p. 237. Decaisne in 
De Lesserfs Icones, v. 3. p. 62. t. 99. Kttnth, Enum. Plant, v. 3. p. 592. 
Edgetcorth, on Jpouoget. etc., Hook. Lond. Joum. Bot. v. 3. p. 405. 

IIydrogeton fenestralis. Pers. Sgn. PI. v. 1. p. 400. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. 
p. 162. 

More than thirty years ago, through the kindness of the late 
Charles Telfair, Esq., of Mauritius, our Herbarium was enriched 
by fine, dried, flowering specimens, and our Museum by speci- 
mens in alcohol, of this most remarkable plant, gathered by Pro- 
fessor Bojer in Madagascar. Some thirty years previous to that 
the plant was first detected in Madagascar by Aubert du Petit- 
Thouars, who described the genus in his ' Nov. Gen. Plant. Ma- 
dagasc./ a work to which we are sorry we have not at this time 
access. It was impossible not to desire earnestly that so very 
remarkable and so very curious a plant, whose leaves are consti- 
tuted by a series of the most beautiful network, without paren- 
chyma, reduced in short to its vascular reticulated tissue, should 
be in cultivation in this country, and our wishes have at length 
been crowned with success. The Rev. "William Ellis wrote to 

JANUARY 1ST, 1856. 

me on the Uth of August of tins year (18( >m Hoddesdon, 

Hurts, with the following gratifying intelligence:—" 1 have just 
returned from a voyage to Mad I, while there, waa 

enabled to obtain some plants of the I tdra fen 

which I have been able, with much ease, to bring safely home. 

\[. Bojer, at Mauritius, told me you were anxious -ess 

a plant, and as he has not been able to procure it living, I shall 
have much pleasure in sending a plant to Kew for your accept- 
ance, or bringing one over soon myself." Mr. Ellis has been 
better than his word : he has presented us with two plants, in 
September, — one of them, as here repr in a flowering 

state. The remainder of his plants are placed in the hands of 
Messrs. Veitch and Sons, Exotic Nursed er and I 

and we shall be surprised if all who are curious in horticulture 
and botany do not possess themselves of so beautiful and curi- 
ous an object, and which is cultivated with the great in a 
stove (or possibly a warm greenhouse), in a shallow pan of rain- 
water, including a moderate quantity of earth for the roots 

! upon, — being entirely aquatic, i - even submerged; 

and we cannot doubt but it may be cultivated in glass Aquaria, 
and even in a glass jar placed in the drawing-room, as is done 
with the Vallis?icria spiralis, etc. 

As Mr. Ellis has favoured us with the particulars of his ob- 
taining the plant, we shall quote his own words: — "The most 
rare and choice acquisition which 1 made in Madagascar, during 
this visit, was the beautiful aquatic plant, Of i fenestralis, 

which Sir W. J. Hooker designates ' one of the most curious of 
Nature's vegetable productions.' Dr. Lindley had drawn my at- 
tention to it and other Madagascar plants before my departure, 
and had shown me a drawing of it in the work of Du Petit- 
Thouars. At Mauritius, M. Bojer, a distinguished naturalist, who 
had formerly resided in Madagascar, very frankly and kindly in- 
formed me of the localities in which the plants I was anxious to 
obtain were most likely to be found. From the work of Du 
Petit-Thouars, in M. Bojer's possession, I copied the Ouvirandra, 
in a size rather larger than the engraving, and by exhibiting this 
to the natives, at length found one man who knew where it grew ; 
his master, who had shown me many acts of kindness, allowed 
him to go and search for it, and after two or three days he re- 
turned, saying he had found the plant growing in a stream of 
water, but could not get it, owing to the number of crocodiles in 
the stream: the late rains, it was said, had made these animals 
more numerous than usual at that particular place. At length 
however the man brought me a fine lot of plants in excellent 
condition, and 1 w r as happy to reward him for his trouble, and 
to take them immediately under my own charge. 

" The natives describe this plant as growing on the margin 

of running streams. The root, or rhizome, is about an inch in 
thickness, and six or nine inches long, often branching in dif- 
ferent directions like the roots of ginger or turmeric, but in one 
continuous growth, not a succession of distinct formations, at- 
tached at the termination of one and the commencement of 
another. The root is composed of a white fleshy substance, ap- 
parently without large or tough fibres, and is covered with a 
rather thick light-brown skin. ' The plant is attached to the 
sides of the streams in which it grows by numbers of long, fine, 
fibrous radicles, which penetrate and adhere firmly to the loam 
or clay of the banks. Entangled amongst these roots were large 
quantities of decayed leaves, and other vegetable substances, from 
which the plant may probably derive some portion of its nutri- 
ment, though, from the bubbles of air frequently found under 
the leaves, it would seem to possess the property of decomposing 
a portion of the water in which it grows. I was informed that 
it also grew in places which were dry at certain seasons of the 
year ; that the leaves then died down, but the root buried in the 
mud retained its vitality, and when the water returned fresh 
leaves burst forth. The natives spoke of it as tenacious of life, 
and said that whenever the earth around, even the smallest por- 
tion of it, remained moist, that portion would put forth leaves 
when again covered with water. 

" This plant is valuable to the natives, who at certain seasons 
of the year gather it as an article of food, the fleshy root, when 
cooked, yielding a farinaceous substance resembling a yam. 
Hence its native name, Ouvirandrano, — literally, Water-yam, or 
yam of the water : ouvi, in the Malagasy and Polynesian lan- 
guages, signifying yam; and rano, in the former, signifying 

" The Ouvirandra is not only a rare and curious, but a sin- 
gularly beautiful plant, both in colour and structure. From the 
several crowns of the branching root, growing often nearly a foot 
deep in the water, a number of graceful leaves, nine or ten inches 
long and two or three inches broad, rise on slender stalks, and 
spread out horizontally, just beneath the surface of the water. 
The flower-stalk rises from the centre of the leaves, and the 
branching or fork-like inflorescence is curious ; but the structure 
of the leaf is peculiarly so, and seems like a living fibrous skele- 
ton, rather than a perfect leaf. The longitudinal fibres extend 
in curved lines along its entire length, and are united by thread- 
like fibres or veins crossing them at right angles from side to 
side at short distances from each other. The whole leaf looks 
as if composed of fine tendrils, wrought after a most regular 
pattern, so as to resemble a piece of bright-green lace or open 
needlework. Each leaf rises from the crown on the root like a 
short, delicate-looking, pale-green, or yellow fibre, gradually un- 

folding its feath ami in 

neaih the water. The leaves in thi >wth 

- through ali pale yellow 

to a dark olive, becoming 1 hey finally d dwd en 

nearly black; while air-bubbles of considerate [uently 

appear under the full-formed and healthy leaves. It is 

able to imagine any object of the kind more attractive than 
a foil-grown plant, with its dafk-gn rming the limit 

of a circle two or three feet in diameter, and presenting in the 
transparent water, within that circle, leaves in every stage of de- 
velopment, both as regards colour and size. Nor is it leas cu- 
rious to notice, that these slender and fragile structures, appa- 
rently not more substantial than the gossamer and flexile as a 
feather, still possess a tenacity and wir Inch allows the 

delicate leaf to be raised by the hand to the surface of the water 
without injury. 

" I succeeded in conveying this plant safely to Mauritius, where 
it was preserved for more than a year, and seemed to thrive b 
in running water, at a temperature of about 74°. I was happ) 
to present specimens of it to ML Bojer, and to Mr. Duncan, the 
Director of the Royal Gardens at Pamplemouses. At the Cape 
of Good Hope, Mr. Gibbon kindly took charge of it during my 
absence on a journey of more than five months into the interior, 
and I willingly left a plant of it in the Botanical Gardens (h 
Since my return to England, I have had much satisfaction in 
presenting specimens of this rare plant to the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, to the Gardens of the Horticultural Society at Cbiswick, 
and to those at Regent's Park." 

Persoon, or probably Richard in Pcrsoon's ' Synopsis/ ob- 
served of this plant, that it was nearly allied to Aponogeton ; and 
no wonder: the habits and general structure, edible roots, di- 
rection of the nerves of the leaf, binate spikes, disepalous peri- 
anth, stamens and pistils, are common to both. But the able 
Decaisne refers Ouvirandra to Naiadea ; Kunth, to the Genera 
Fluvialibus affinia; Endlicher places it next to Saururca, as a 
"genus dubium" standing however next to Aponogeton (in Sau- 
rtirece); Lindley in Juncaginea ; and Mr. Edgeworth, in a Me- 
moir, above quoted, on Aponogeton and the allied genera 
shows that Ouvirandra can scarcely be distinguished from Apo- 
nogeton, or, if it is kept distinct, certain species of Aponogeton 
must rank with it : and he accordingly draws up a slightly 
modified character of Ouvirandra, to which he also refers four 
species of Aponogeton (viz. A. crispus, A. pusillus, A. Macraai, 
and A. undvlatm). M. Planchon, in his 'Observations sur le 
Genre Aponogeton et sur ses Affinites naturelles' (Ann. Sc. Nat. 
troisieme serie, vol. i. p. 107. an. 1844), suggests that Aponoge- 
ton should form a suborder of Alismacece, or probably a new 

order, Aponogctacea, and that Ouvirandra should rank with it. 
Perhaps, indeed, Du Petit-Thouars was led more especially to 
constitute a new genus of this in consequence of the remarkable 
organization of the foliage : but, curious and general as is the 
fenestrate character in the present species (and probably in the 
0. Heudelotii, Kth.) from Senegambia, briefly noticed by De- 
caisne, I.e.; yet, in the 0. fenestrate , we find occasionally a leaf 
(as in the annexed figure) wholly or partially entire, that is, 
having the areolae of the nerves filled up with parenchyma : and 
Decaisne has described and figured a second species of Ouviran- 
dra, of Madagascar (0. Bernieriana), filled up with parenchyma, 
"foliis plenis," exactly as in any ordinary Aponogeton. Our 
flowering plant produced no seeds. 

Descr. Mr. Ellis has in the above account described so much 
of this plant, that but little remains for us to notice. The root 
with us has not shown " tubercles," but consists of a horizontal, 
branching caudex or rhizome, emitting numerous descending 
fibres from below ; and above, from different points, clusters or 
fascicles of long-petiolated leaves, which spread more or less hori- 
zontally beneath the surface of the water ; they are oblong-obtuse 
at the apex, with a mucro, and more or less obtuse at the base : 
this blade of the leaf has a strong midrib ; the rest is wholly 
formed, and from the earliest stage of development, of what ap- 
pear to be longitudinal nerves meeting at the point, and con- 
nected by transverse nerves or nervelets, of a pale yellowish- 
green colour when young, brighter and deeper green when fully 
formed, and becoming dark olive-green in age. If these nerves 
and nervelets are seen under a microscope, they will be found 
to consist of very slender nerves surrounded by a portion of 
parenchyma* on each side; sometimes the parenchyma is ex- 
tended, so that the open portion is of an oval form, and in some 
rare instances, as above observed, an entire leaf is formed of 
parenchyma traversed by the slender nerves. The petioles vary 
in length from a finger's length to a span long, and are terete, 
slightly sheathing at the base. Scape from the midst of the 
petioles, exactly resembling the petiole, and probably varying in 
length according to the depth of water, for the flower-spikes 
attain to the surface of the water. Before the spikes, two in 
number, are developed, the dilated apex of the scape bears a 
small, calyptriform, striated, deciduous lid,f which falls off en- 

* The cells of the parenchyma are very delicate, full of fluid and granules of 
green chlorophyll. The nerve consists of a few long, green, tubular cells, sur- 
rounding several very slender spiral tracheae in the main ribs, but a single one in 
the nervelets. There are no air-cells in the substance of the leaf, or in the apex 
of the petiole. — J. D- H. 

f Mr. Ellis called my attention to this, and made a sketch of it, sending me 
the fallen lid : for it had fallen before the plant arrived at Kew. 

tire, and probably o >racts united, leaving a scar 

at the base of the spikes, which latter rapidly attain their full 
size, about two inches long. B acuminated, bear- 

ing rather closely placed, nearly colourl rs on all si< 

Perianth (or perhaps bracteoles*) of two membranous, obovate, 
whitish scales, inserted on the under side of the flower. 
six. Filaments about as long as the sepals, rather thiek, acute 
at the point of insertion of the anther. oval, erect, two- 

celled, cells opening laterally and longitudinally. Ovaries thl 
ovate, tapering into a short, slightly curved style. 

* Decaisne has the following note: — "An, propter floram fabricara, stamina 
pro floribus masculis distinctis, et ovaria pro fcemineis ccntralibus, perianthiiquc 
squamae pro bracteis habenda ? " 

Fig. 1. Extremity of a scape, before the spikes arc developed, and \\\. 
covered by the calyptriform bract: — natural Lid or bract, fallen off. 

3. Portion of a spike with flowers. 4. Sepal (or bractcole). 5. Stamen. 
6. Pistil : — all except Jig . 1 more or less magnified. 

Tab. 4895. 
CLIVIA Gardeni. 

Major Gardens Clivia. 

Nat. Ord. Amaryllidace^e. — Hexandria* Monogynia. 

Gen. Cliar. Perigonium superum, corollaceura, tubuloso-infundibulare, 6-parti- 
tum, irregulai-e, deciduura ; tubo brevi, tereti ; Iaciniis imbricatis ; exterioribus 
lineari-lanceolatis ; interioribus paulo longioribus, spathulatis ex his inferiore 
magis producta, apice leviter recurvata, ex illis superiore breviore, convexo-cur- 
vata, cseteris rectiusculis. Stamina sex, summo tubo inserta, decurrentia, erecta ; 
petalina paulo longiora, parum exserta. Filamenta filiformia. Antlieree oblongs, 
dorso supra basin, bifidaru affixre, erectse (versatiles, Lindl.). Ovarium inferum, 
subovatum, obsolete trigonum, triloculare ; ovnla 6-7 iu quolibet loeulo, angulo 
interno affixa, biseriata, heraianatropa. Columna stylina filiformis, teretiuscula, 
erecta, stamina superans. Stigma trifidum ; Iaciniis patulo-recurvatis. Bacca 
abortu monosperraa (sub-6-sperma, Hook.). Semen adscendens, subgloboso- 
compressum ; testa carnosa, areolata ; hilo et chalaza laterakbus, raphe brevi 
elevata conjunctis. Embryo axilis, alburaine carnoso diinidio brevior; extremi- 
tate radiculari hilo parallele contigua infera. — Herba acaulis, Capensis. Bulbus 
imperfedus; Jibris fasciculatis, carnosis, tnberoso-incrassatis. Folia crebra, disticha, 
lorata, rigida, persisteiitia. Scapus plano-convexus, solidus, apice umbellato-mul- 
tiflorus. Spatha polyphylla, marcescens, Florea pedicellate bracteolis linearibus 
distincti, nutantes, luteo-crocei, apice virescentes. Semiua sape in fruclu gertni- 
nantia. Kunth. 

Clivia Gardeni; foliis obtusiuscule acuminatis, umbella sub-14-flora, floribus 
falcato-curvatis, sepalis apice patentibus. 

Clearly a species of Clivia, Lindl. (Imantophyllum, Hook.), and 
perfectly distinct from the only hitherto known species of this 
African genus, figured at our Tab. 2856. The leaves are longer, 
and they taper gradually into an acuminated but not sharp point ; 
the umbel has fewer flowers, but these flowers are twice the size 
of C. nobilis, and more brightly coloured, very much curved or 
falcate, and the apices of the sepals, instead of being incurved so 
as to form a very contracted mouth, are spreading, thus forming 
an infundibuliform corolla. Clivia nobilis is an inhabitant of the 
Albany Tracts, near the Great Fish River, South Africa ; C. Gar- 
deni was discovered in the Natal Colony by our excellent friend 
Major Garden, and by him introduced to the Royal Garden of 
Kew. Treated as a greenhouse plant, it flowers finely in the 
winter months, and continues for several weeks in blossom. 

JANUARY 1ST, 1856. 

Descr. Root exactly as in C. m 
fibres. Leaves distichonsly inserted, numerous, all radical, the 
bases sheathing : the blade one and a half or two feet long, 
gradually tapering towards the extremity into a rather blunt 
point. Scape erect, very much and ensiformly com; flat 

on one side, slightly rounded (subsemiterete) on the other. 
Bracts few, small, membranaceous, among the pedicels, 
of about fourteen Jtowen. Peduncles two inches or more long, 
erect or erecto-patent, curved upwards. full two inches 

long, independent of the ovary, very much falcate or carved 
downwards, of a dull orange or brick-red colour, gradually pass- 
ing upwards into yellow, and that again into the green of the 
upper extremity : their shape is mfundibuliform, curved : the 
sepals (united only at the base) overlap each other for their whole 
length, except at the apices, which are patent, and thus give their 
flower a very different appearance from that of ('. nobUis. The 
stamens are inserted above the base of the perianth, longer than 
it : the filaments white, curved : anthers oblong, yellow. Ovary 
subglobose, but three-lobed or angled. St////' longer than the 
stamen, much inserted beyond the sepals. Stigma trifid. 

Fig. 1. Pistil and stamens. 2. Pistil : — magnified. 

Tab. 4896. 

TECOMA fulva. 

Fulvous-floicered Tecoma . 

Xat. Ord. Bignoniace.e. — Didynamia Angiosperma. 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulatus, 5-dentatus. Corolla tubo brevi, fauce dilatata, 
limbo 5-lobo subbilabiato aut aequali. Stamina 4, didynama, cum rudimento 
quint!; anthera biloculaves, loculis divergentibus. Stigma bilamcllosum. Cap- 
sula bilocularis, bivalvis, septo valvis contrario. Semina imbricata, alata, trans- 
versa. — Arbores fruticesve, scepe scandentes. Folia opposita, d'ujitata aut stppius 
imparipinnata. Plores paniculati aut racemosi, scepius terminates, Jlavi, incar- 
nati aut albidi. De Cand. 

Tecoma fulva; fruticosa, ramis teretibus glabris junioribus subtetragonis vil- 
losis, foliis sparsis imparipinnatis multijugis, petiolo articulate inter pumas 
anguste alato, foliolis cuneato-ovatis subsessilibus apice serratis junioribus 
villosis adultis glabris, racemis nxillaribus 7-9-tloris, pedicellis bibraeteatis, 
calyce villoso (demuin glabro) acute 5-dentato. De Cand. 

Tecoma fulva. Don, Gen. Syst. v. 4. p. 224. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 221. 

Bignonia fulva. Cav. Ic. v. 6. p. 58. t. 580. 

There cannot be a question but that the handsome plant here 
figured is the Bignonia fulva* of Cavanilles, till recently appa- 
rently only known to that author and to Louis Nee, who is re- 
ported to have gathered it "in siccis arenosis portus Arica? in 
confinio Peruvian : " this is about latitude 18° 26' south. Our 
flowering specimens were reared by Messrs. Veitch, of the Exeter 
and Chelsea Exotic Nurseries, and sent by them in November, 
1855. We have herbarium specimens from various parts of 
Peru, gathered by Mr. Cuming (No. 932), Mr. McLean, Mr. 

* A much more beautiful, indeed truly lovely and somewhat allied species of 
Tecoma is found in Chiloe by Captain King, by Mr. Bridges (" Pil-pil " of the 
natives, climbing up the trees to a height of forty or fifty feet), by Mr. W. Lobb 
(No. 474), and in the island of Huaffo by Dr. Eights. The flowers are quite 
tubular, apparently rich scarlet ; the leaves pinnated, with oblong, subcoriaceous, 
slightly serrated leaflets, and a slightly winged rachis. This I cannot doubt is 
the Tecoma ? Guarurne, De Cand. (Bignonia alata, Pav. MSS.), although stated to 
be an inhabitant of Peru. De Candolle himself suspects that the locality given 
by Pavon is not correct. 

FEBRUARY IsT, 185fi. 

w ewicz, and from Bolivia by Mr. Portland. Mr. (i. Don, 
and, following him, De Candolle,' appear to have done rightly in 

placing it in Tecoma, though it does not answer to the character 
" corolla tubo brevi." 

Descr. Shrub of an erect habit; tranche* rich purplish- 
brown, terete, glabrous, younger ones hairy. Leave* opposite, 
in outline linear-oblong, petiolate, impari-pinnate. with about 
twclve,opposite, sessile, cuneate, g rrated, glabrous leaf 

and a terminal one ; petiole slightly winged, contracted where the 
leaves are set on; rachis jointed, and each joint rather deeply 
winged; the younger leaves are slightly hairy. Racemes of 
flowers terminal, or on small axillary branches which arise from 
the upper leaves ; the collective flowers constituting a rather 
large leafy cyme. Pedicels downy. Calyx glabrous (hairy, Cav.), 
obovate, obscurely angled, cut into rive, rather deep, trian- 
gular, acuminate, erect teeth. Corolla two inches long, red on 
the upper, tawny-yellow on the under side ; tube cylindrical, but 
tapering much below and very slender, so as to be infundibuli- 
form, slightly curved ; the limb scarcely two-lipped, of five nearly 
equal, spreading, rounded lobes. Stamens four, included, didy- 
namous, inserted at the faux of the corolla; jUamcnts short ; an- 
thers of two, oblong, slightly divaricated, one-celled lobes, and 
having a soft curved inucro or spur terminating the connectiwun ; 
there is a small fifth abortive stamen lower down the tube. Ovary 
elongated, surrounded by a thick glandular ring. Style longer 
than the corolla. Stigma large, two-lipped 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Ovary and glandular ring. 3. Anther. 4. Co- 
rolla laid open, showing the stamens : — magnified. 

Tab. 4897. 

aralia papyrifera. 

Mice-paper Plant. 

Mat. Ord. Araliacej:. — Pentandria Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubo cum ovario connato, limbo supero, brevissimo, integro 
v. quinquedentato. Corolla petala (4-) 5, disci epigyni margini inserta, libera, 
expansa. Stamina 5, cum petalis inserta, iisdeni alterna ; flamenta brevia ; an- 
iherce incumbentes, biloculares. Ovarium inferum, quinque-decemloculare. Ovula 
in loculis solitaria, pendula. Siyli (2-) 5, divaricato-patentes ; stigmata sim- 
plicia. Brupa baccata, costata, calycis limbo stylisque coronata, penta-decapy- 
rena, pyrenis chartaceis, monospermis. Semina inversa. Embryo in apice albu- 
minis dense carnosi brevis, orthotropus, radicula snpera. — Arbores, frutices v. 
herbse, in America imprimis boreali, Japonica et Nova-Zelandia crescentes ; foliis 
alternis, simplicibus, integr'is v. lobatis, digitalis, pinnatis, biternatis, bipinnatis su- 
pradecompositisve, foliolis integerrimis v. serratu, petiolis basi vaginantibus ; flori- 
bus umbellatis, umbellis serpe panhculatis. Endl. 

Aralia papyri/era ; canle inermi erecto subsimplici fruticoso intus copiose albo- 
medulloso, foliis praecipue ad apicem caulis longe petiolatis amplis 5-lobis 
subtus praacipue (junioribus totis) petiolisque stellato-subferrugineo-tomen- 
tosis, lobis lateralibus bilobis terminali trilobo omnibus acutis serratis, stipulis 
longissimis subulatis basi cum petiolo adnatis, umbellis subglobosis nume- 
rosis sessilibus bracteatis in paniculam amplam ramosam totam stellato- 
tomentosam dispositis, floribus tetrameris, calycis margine truncato integro, 
stylis 2 demum divaricatis. 

Aralia papyrifera. Hook. Journ. of Sot. 1852. p. 53. t. 1, 2. 

In the ' Journal of Botany ' just referred to, — vols. ii. (1850), 
p. 27 and p. 250 (tabs. VIII. and IX.), vol. iv. (1852), p. 50 
(tabs. I. and II.), and p. 347, vol. v. (1853), p. 79, and vol. vii. 
(1855), p. 92 and p. 281, — we have traced the progress of our 
knowledge respecting the origin, and the history, of the well- 
known "Rice-paper" of the Chinese, and mentioned the gentle- 
men through whom we obtained the needful information : which 
we have no space to repeat here. It is however to the kindness of 
the talented Governor of Hongkong, Sir John Bowring, and his 
son, J. C. Bowring, Esq., that we owe a more intimate acquaint- 
ance with the plant itself, and finally to the possession of the 
living and flowering plant. Our largest specimen, about five feet 


high, placed in a damp stove, produced its fine panicles of blos- 
soms in December, l v •">■"> ; but, probably owing to the unfavourable 

season of the year, the flowers dropped off, almost as last as they 
were developed, and bore no fruit. From dried specimens that 
had flowered at Hongkong in the Governor's garden, we can make 
up the deficiency as far as the immature fruit is concerned. 

I must, however, be allowed to state that the plant is only 
here provisionally placed in Aralia. The character of the several 
genera of Araliacea? are universally acknowledged to be very 
imperfect. A notice has been recently given, in the excellent 
'Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France,' September, 1854, 
of an "Esquisse d'une Monographic des Araliacees, par MM. J. 
Decaisne et Planchon," published in the ' Revue Ilorticole,' n° 
du 16 Mars, 1854, pp. 104-109, a work to which unfortunately 
I have no access. The Bulletin indeed contains an enumeration 
of the nineteen genera into which the Order is divided by th 
gentlemen ; but, though accompanied by certain characters, they 
are so brief that I can come to no satisfactory conclusion on the 
suitableness of any to our plant. From Aralia, as hitherto defined 
by authors, it differs in having two instead of five styles, and 
might hence be ranked with Panax : but Aralia, as characterized 
by MM. Decaisne and Planchon, should have two to five styles ; it 
should however further have a calyx of rive teeth (consequently live. 
and imbricated, petals), and the genus includes herbs, inhabiting 
temperate regions, with compound leaves ; characters at variance 
with the species now before us. A well-grown plant of this must 
have a fine appearance, as described, in Hongkom ven feet 

high, with a circumference, of its terminal branches, of twenty 
feet, and throwing out twelve to fourteen panicles three feet long, 
drooping like magnificent plumes in regular form over the large 
dark palmate leaves." It seems to be a native exclusively of the 
Island of Formosa ; and no botanist has ever seen the plant in 
its native locality. By the untiring exertions of Sir John Bowling 
he induced the Chinese traders to procure living plants, when 
on their voyage to that island for the cargo of stems to make 
their paper. 

Descr. Plant unarmed, five to seven feet high. Sinn branch- 
ing above, and from two to three, or at most four inches in dia- 
meter, forming very little wood, filled with the most exquisitely 
white pith, of which the famous " Rice-paper " of China is made, 
as detailed in the journal above quoted. Young leaves and 
branches and whole inflorescence entirely covered with copious, 
stellated, more or less thick and deciduous down ; upper surface 
of the foliage at length glabrous. Fully grown leaves sometimes 
a foot long, cordate, five- to seven-lobed ; lobes acute, serrated, 
sinus very deep ; texture soft and rather flaccid. Petioles verv 

long, terete, furnished at the base with two, long (two inches in 
length), soft, subulate, erect stipules. Panicles from the extremity 
of the stem or branches and rising above them, then nodding, 
one to three feet long ; branches all with subulate bracts, as well 
as the terminal and sessile, capitate umbels, which are arranged 
alternately on the ultimate branches. Floioers on short pedi- 
cels, polygamous, tetramerous. Ovary turbinate, woolly : mar- 
gin of the calyx obsolete. Petals four, ovate, concave, acute, 
valvate, woolly on the outside. Stamens four, alternate with 
the petals, incurved ; anthers oval, two-celled, rather large. 
Styles two, at first erect and slightly incurved, at length (in 
fruit) divaricated. Stigma small, capitate. The stylopodium is 
depressed and surrounded by an elevated, waved, fleshy ring. 
Fruit in the dry state nearly black, scarcely mature, subglo- 
bose, obscurely didymous, laterally, but moderately, compressed, 
smooth, crowned with the fleshy ring just mentioned, and the 
divaricating styles. 

Fig. 1. Tuft of stellated hairs. 2. Flower. 3. Ovary from the same. 4. 
Umbel of scarcely mature fruits {natural size), taken from a dried specimen. 
5. Single fruit from the same : — all but fig. 4 more or less magnified. 

Tab. 4898. 
DENDROBIUM bigibbum. 

Double-spurred Dendrobium . 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4755.) 

Dendrobium (§ Dendrocoryne) bigibbum; caulibus elongatis apice 3—5 -phyllis, 
racemis erectis elongatis dissitifloris, petalis subrotundis sepalis duplo lati- 
oribus, labelli trilobi lobis rotundatis medio cristato basi gibboso, sepalis 
lateralibus in calcar productis. Lindl. 

Dendrobium bilobum. Paxt. Fl. Garden, v. 3. p. 25. n. 491. Jig. 245 {wood- 
cut only). 

A species of Dendrobium with very handsome flowers; but 
the long, slender, bare pseudo-bulbous stems, and few and nar- 
row sparse leaves, are great drawbacks to the general beauty of 
the plant. We are indebted for the specimen here figured to 
Mr. C. Loddiges, in November, 1855; he had received the 
plant from Dr. Thomson, who found it on Mount Adolphus, 
Torres' Straits, on the north-east coast of New Holland. In 
consequence of this tropical locality, it requires greater heat in 
the cultivation than most Australian Orchidece. A drawing, made 
on the spot, and dried specimens show that from ten to twelve 
flowers are sometimes produced upon one peduncle. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs stem-like, long, slender, fusiform, a span 
or more in length, the younger ones clothed with green, sheath- 
ing, foliaceous scales, and at the extremity bearing two to four 
or five narrow, linear-oblong, subacuminated, very obscurely 
striated leaves. The older stems or pseudo-bulbs are swollen 
at the very base, and are sheathed throughout the length with 
pale, brownish, membranaceous, striated scales, and have no 
leaves. From these older stems the peduncle arises from near 
the apex, and is about as long as the stem, erect, in the present 
instance, two- to ten- or twelve-flowered. Flowers deep lilac. 
Sepals ovate, spreading; two lateral ones terminating below in 
a short, blunt, curved spur ; above this spur is a gibbosity, oc- 
febhuary 1st, 185fi. 

casioned by the like swelling at the base of the lip: from the 
presence of this and the spur is derived the specitic name hi- 
gibbum. Petals large, nearly orbicular, horizontally patent. Lip 
deeper-coloured than the rest of the flower, three-lobed : lateral 
lobes large, incurved; middle lobe moderately reflexed, retuse at 
the apex: the disc has a large, elevated, white crest, papillose 
for the greater part of its length : the base is decurrent, and 
forms a gibbosity. Column large, compressed, grooved, the back 
closely united with the sepal, the clinandrium only standing a 
little forward. 

Fig, 1. Side view of the lip, and spur of the sepals. 2. Front view of the 
lip. 3. Column. 4. Pollen-masses. 


Tab. 4899. 
APHELANDRA variegata. 

Variegated Aphelandra. 

Nat. Ord. Acanthace^e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus, inaequalis. Corolla hypogyna, ringens labio 
supenore subfornical, inferioris tripartiti laciniia lateralibus multo minoribus 
Stamina 4, corolfce tubo inserta, inclusa, didynama ; anther* uniloculares 
muticae. Ovarium biloculare, loculis biovulatis. Stylus simplex; stigma bifi- 
dum. Capsula teretiuscula, bilocularis, tetrasperma, loculicide bivalvis, valvis 
medio septiferis. Semina compressa, retinaculis subtensa.— Frutices America 
tropic*; folns oppositis; spicis axillaribus et terminations, tetragonis; bracteis 
oppositis, submembranaceis, bracteolis angustis ; corollis speciosis, rubicundis (vel 
flavis). Endl. v 

Aphelandra variegata; foliis brevissime petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis venis in- 
ferne albo-lineatis, spicis simplicibus incrassatis subtetragonis, bracteis ellip- 
ticis obtusis integerrimis aurantiacis carinatis, corollee Aavee tubo valde elon- 
gato labiis suba3qualibus superiore conduplicato inferiore trifido, laciniis late- 
ralibus vix minoribus, sepalis oblongis acutis. 

Aphelandra variegata. Morel, in M. des Serres, v. 10. t. 981. 

Received from the Messrs. Veitch, of the Exotic Nurseries, 
Exeter and Chelsea. It is a native of Brazil, and is certainly 
an extremely handsome plant, worthy of a place in every stove : 
its foliage is ample and striking ; and the large elongated spikes 
resemble a narrow pine-cone, but are of the richest orange-red, 
from the scales of which protrude the bright yellow flowers; 
and, in addition, its flowering season with us is in the dead of 
winter. It requires the same mode of treatment as the A. auran- 
tiaca, Lindl., figured at our Tab. 4224, which it much resembles, 
but there are the following remarkable differences in our present 
plant : — Leaves larger, longer, and on very short petioles, with 
white lines at the base of the veins. Scales of the spike ellip- 
tical, obtuse, entire, coloured ; flowers much smaller, fewer ex- 
panded at a time, uniformly and invariably yellow, with the 
lateral segments of the lower lip as long and nearly as broad as 
the central one ; calyx much smaller and of a different shape. 

Descr. Our plants are about a foot and a half high, mode- 

february 1st, 1856. 

rately branched, everywhere glabrous. Leave* opposite, between 

ovate and lanceolate, slightly waved, moderated acuminate, en- 
tire, strongly ribbed, the ribs or veins generally with a white 

streak at the base: petioles very short, thick, dilated or winged 
at the margin. Spikes terminal, strobiliform, almost a span 1. 
tetragonous, formed of closely imbricated carinated scales, in 
four ranks, of a rich reddish-orange colour, elliptical, obtuse, 
entire, uppermost one the narrowest, lowermost pair the broad- 
est, and green on the back. From each of these scales, one at 
a time, appear the Joicers, about four in a whorl, slightly pubes- 
cent bright uniform yellow. The two lips of the corolla are 
nearly equal in length ; upper lip entire, carinate, and condu- 
phcate, emarginate; lower of three nearly equal segments, lanceo- 
late, the intermediate one scarcely larger than the lateral ones • 
the tube of the corolla long, slender. Calyx of five, nearly equal 
oblong, moderately acute sepals. Stamens as in A. amraniiaca, in- 
cluded. Ovary, from a thickened base, ovate : style long slender 
downy above : stigma obtuse, bifid. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. P 

: — magnified. 

-,'.7 \ I 

Tab. 4900. 
NYCTANTHES Arbor-tristis. 

Arbor-tristis, or Night Jasmine. 

Nat. Ord. JasminbjE. — Diandria Monogyxia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubulosus, integer aut vix 5-6-denticulatus. Corolla tubo 
tereti, limbo 5-7-lobo, lobis obcordatis per eestivationem sinistrorsum contortis. 
Antlierce 2, ad faucem sessiles. Stir/ma capitatum. Capsula chartac.ea, compressa, 
obovata, emarginata, bilocularis, bipartibilis, loculis indehiscentibus. Semina in 
quoque loculo solitaria, fundo affixa, erecta, exalbuminosa. — Frutex Indicus, non 
scandens. Eamuli tetragoni. Folia opposita, breviter petiolata, ovata, acuta, utrin- 
que scabra. Pedunculi axillares et terminates, apicejlores tres umbellulatos bibrac- 
teatos gerentes. Corolla? alba tnbo aurantiaco. Flores odoratissimi. Be Cand. 

Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis. 

Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis. Linn. Sp. PL ed. v. 2. p. S. Roxb. Fl. Ind. v. 1. 
p. 85. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 1. Ker, Bot. Reg. t. 399. De Cand. Prodr. 
v. 8. p. 314. 

Scabrita scabra. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 12./?. 115. 

Pabilium Arbor-tristis. Gcertn. 

Manjapumeram. Rheede, Hort. Malab. v. I. p. 35. t. 21. 

Sep'halica. Jones, Asiat. Res. v. 4. p. 244. 

In no modern work on Botany does a good figure of this in- 
teresting plant appear ; indeed we know of only one such figure 
at all, that of Mr. Ker above quoted, and that is so indifferent 
that we are glad to offer a better from plants which were raised 
at Mount Lebanon, Twickenham, by Her Grace the Dowager 
Duchess of Northumberland, from seeds lately received from 
India. It is treated as a stove-plant. Though introduced by 
Sir Joseph Banks in 1781 from India, it is nevertheless little 
known in our collections. Its name, Nyctanthes (yv%, night, and 
avdos, flower) Arbor-tristis, has perhaps created a prejudice against 
it. Sir William Jones tells us : " This gay tree (for nothing sor- 
rowful appears in its nature) spreads its rich odour to a consi- 
derable distance every evening, but at sunrise it sheds most of 
its night-flowers, which are collected with care for the use of 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1856. 

perfumers and dyers. My pundits unanimously assure me that 
the plant before us is their SSp'ialicd, thus named because bees 
are supposed to sleep on the blossoms." It is certain, however, 

that when the fragrant corollas, with the bright orange eye and 
orange tube have fallen, as they do early in the morning, the plant 
has but an indifferent appearance. These orange-coloured tubes 

are, according to Roxburgh, what yield the colour or dye, but 
unfortunately no way has yet been discovered of rendering this 
colour permanent. The plant blossoms through the summer 
months. Although a native of India, it is not correctly known 
of what particular district it is a native : Clusius says Goa, and 
only there ; but Dr. Hooker found it wild abuudantly in Assam. 
Descr. A straggling, but not climbing shrub (in India often 
a small tree), with spreading, acutely four-angled, and almost 
winged branches, the angles often tinged with red. Leaves ovate, 
acuminate, from two to five inches long, opposite, penninerved, 
entire or often dentato - lobate ; petioles half to three-quarters 
of an inch long. Corymbs terminal, the branches opposite, three- 
flowered. Flmoers sessile, each flower subtended by two broadly 
ovate bracts, almost concealing the calyx. Calyx cylindrical, sub- 
turbinate, villous with appressed hairs, truncate, with five very 
minute teeth. Corolla hypocrateriform ; tube thrice as long as the 
calyx, orange-colour within and without, within also hairy at the 
base ; limb of six, imbricating, cuneate, subcontortcd, erose, white, 
spreading segments. Stamens two, included ; //7V//// rw/v very short, 
inserted just within the mouth of the tube ; anther ovato-cordate, 
having a small curved spur at the back, near the apex. Ovary 
ovato-globose ; style included, shorter than the tube of the co- 
rolla ; stigma peltate, with a depression in the centre. 

Fig. 1. Calyx. 2. Corolla laid open, showing the insertion of the stamens. 
3. Stamen. 4. Pistil: — magnified. 



Tab. 4901. 
CYPRIPEDIUM purpuratum. 

Purple-stained Lady 8 Slipper. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide.e. — Gynandria Diandria. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium patens. Sepala lateralia connata aut dlstincta, labello 
supposita. Petala libera, saepius angustiora. Labellum inflatum, margine 
utrinque auriculato inflexo. Columna nana. Stamina 3, quorum unum sterile 
eentrale dilatatum inflexum, et 2 fertilia lateralia ; anthercc sub stamine sterili 
latentes, subrotundo-biloculares. Pollen pulverulento-glandulosum. Stylus sub- 
liber, teres, stigmate disciformi terminatus. — Herbse terrestres utrinque orbis, ab 
aquatorefere ad circalum arcticum vigentes. Folia radicalia aut caulina, coriacea 
aut plicala. Flores solitarii racemosi v. paniculati, speciosi. Lindl. 

Cypripedium purpuratum ; acaule, foliis oblongis acutis striatis maculatis basi 
equitantibus, scapo aphyllo pubescente, sepalo dorsali acuminato margine 
revoluto, petalis ovali-oblongis acutis marginibus superne praecipue ciliatis 
(non verrucosis), stamine sterili lunato. 

Cypripedium purpuratum. Lindl. Bot. Reg. v. 23. t. 1991. Wight, 1c. Plant. 
Lid. Or. v. 5 t. 1760? 

We have already, under our Cypripedium barbatum (Tab. 
4234), indicated the very close affinity between that and C. ve- 
nustum, Wall., and our present plant. The chief distinction rests 
on the absence of the warts at the upper edge of the petals, and 
those petals are in the plant before us much broader than those 
of C. barbatum ; but their characters seem constant, and we think 
that Cypripedium (so called) purpuratum of Dr. Wight, above 
quoted, should rather be referred to C. barbatum, for the petals 
are very narrow, and though the verruca? themselves are not dis- 
tinctly exhibited (the drawing being most likely taken from the 
dried specimen), yet the marginal hairs are represented in tufts, 
as if they grew from warts. It is a lovely species, whether the 
size and beauty of the flowers or the mottled foliage be consi- 
dered : native of the Malayan Archipelago, and flowers in a damp 
stove in November. 

Descr. Stem none. Leaves radical, the longest four to five 
inches long, oblong, moderately acute, often bi-trifid at the point, 
distichous, sheathing and equitant at the base; the surface is 

rEBRUAKY 1ST, 1S56. 

striated, and between the stria? is alternately, in blotches, green 
and white (or whitish-green) ; the substance subcoriarrous. Scape 
from a small upright sheathing central leaf, eight to ten inches 
long, terete, purple, naked, pubeseenti-hirsute. Flower large, 
solitary, terminal. At the ba>r of the long, dab-shaped, fur- 
rowed, downy ovary is a rather large green upright bract. Sepals 
spreading, two upper ones very large, subrotund, much acumi- 
nated, white, richly striped with purple ; lower sepal (two com- 
bined) small, oblong, lanceolate, directed downwards. Sepals 
large, spreading, oblong, acute, brownish-purple, streaked, at the 
base spotted with deeper purple. LabeUum large, unguiculate, 
helmet-shaped, greenish-purple, obscurely veined. Sterile stamen 
very large, reniform. 


Tab. 4902. 
CATTLEYA maxima. 

Largest Cattleya. 

Nat. Ord. Orchtde^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4700.) 

Cattleya maxima; pseudobulbis clavatis elongatis alte siilcatis, foliis sub- 
emarginatis basi sublatioribus, pedunculo 2-3- (pluri-) floro, spatha aa- 
cipiti longiore, sepalis lanceolatis petaloideis subrecurvis, petafis pluries 
latioribus convexis undulatis reticulatim pictis, labello convoluto apice ex- 
planato oblongo subcrispato-lobato per axia Isevissinio. Lindl. 

Cattleya maxima. Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 116. Bot. Beg. 1844, sub 
t. 5. Journ. of the Hort. Soc. v. 1. Part I. p. 64. Bot. Beg. 1 846, v. 32. 1. 1. 

This very fine specimen was sent us, in the autumn of 1855, 
by W. G. Farmer, Esq., of Nonsuch Park, Surrey, as a quite 
new Cattleya, the origin of which was not precisely known ; but 
there cannot be the smallest doubt of its specific identity with 
Cattleya maxima, figured and described by Dr. Lindley from 
Hartweg's Plants: native of Guayaquil and Columbia. But, 
though described in the several works above noticed as a new 
species, our great Orchidist expresses his doubts how far it can 
lay claim to the rank of. a species, for it evidently approaches 
both C. MossicB and labiata in many important particulars : " its 
main peculiarities consist in its long-channelled pseudobulbs, 
and in its very convex wavy petals, which are quite different in 
appearance from the thin, nearly flat petals of C Mossice and 
labiata." Be that as it may, the plant is a very beautiful one, 
and the specimen particularly fine, having seven fully-formed 
flowers on the spike at the time it was submitted to our artist 
for drawing ; and the labellum, of a pale colour, almost white, 
with an orange-yellow streak on the disc, is elegantly reticulated 
with purple veins. The sepals and petals are paler in colour 
than the specimen figured by Dr. Lindley, and this only sets off 
the variegated colouring of the lip to the greater advantage. 

Descr. Pseudobulbs clustered, forming a terete or slightly 

MARCH 1st, 1856. 

compressed stem, a foot or more long, sheathed with long, mem- 
branaceous, striated scabs, and terminated by a single, oblong, 
coriaceous leaf, eight or ten inches long, and from two to three 
broad. Panicle from the apex of the pseudobulb and base of 
the leaf, the peduncle arising from a compressed membranous 
sheath. Flotcers six or seven on the same panicle, extremely 
large and handsome. Ovary very long, clavate, pedicelliform. 
Sepals spreading, narrow, lanceolate, acuminate, even, pale rose- 
colour. Petals equally spreading, of the same colour, much 
broader than the sepals, waved. The lip is very large ; lower 
part (or two lateral lobes) convolute into a tube ; the central 
lobe is large and spreading, crisped at the mouth : the ground- 
colour of the tube is white ; in the disc or centre is an orange- 
coloured streak, and from a deep rose-colon red line bordering 
that a number of branching lines of the same colour diverge to- 
wards the margin. 

Tab. 4903. 

Caffrarian Encephalartus, or Coffer-bread. 

Nat. Ord. Cycade^:. — Dicecia Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. Flores masculi : — Antherm apertse, in strobilum terminalem pe- 
dunculatum collectae, undique rachi communi insertse, singulae oblongo-cuneatse, 
apice incrassato-obtusae v. acuminata?, acumine sursum flexo, connectivo plus 
minus distincto. Flores fceminei : — Carpidia plurima, nionophylla, aperta, in 
strobilos terminales pedunculatos collecta, rachi communi undique inserta, sin- 
gula basi in stipitem attenuata, apice in peltam rhomboideam dilatata, pelta sub- 
tus utrinque ovulo unico inverso fceta. Fructus syncarpius, e carpidiis laxius- 
cule coalitis. Semina ovoidea, testa ossea, saqrius carpidii processu fungoso cu- 
pulatim excepta. Embryo inversus, in axi albuminis carnosi, radicula respectu 
racheos communis centripeta. — Arbores, interdum gigantea, in Africa australi 
subtropica (regione Caffrarum), frondibus pmnatis, pinnis lata basi sessilibus, mul- 
tinerviis, apice scepius spinoso-denticulalis. Endl. 

Encephalartus Caffer; caudice erecto glabro tereti-cylindraceo elato, foliis 
(cum petiolo) subtripedalibus apice recurvis circumscriptione lanceolatis 
pmnatis glabris, pinnis utrinque sub-37 erecto-patentibus anguste lanceo- 
latis coriaceis rigidis atro-viridibus (minime glaucis) planiusculis supra niti- 
dis estriatis subtus minute longitudinaliter striatis, margine paululum recur- 
vis integris vel uni- vel remote- bi-tridentato-spinosis, inferioribus latiori- 
bus apice mucronato-spinosis rebquis mucrone obtuso recurvo terminatis, 
rachi glabra obtuse iuequaliter subtetragona, amento masculo subcylindraceo 
sesquipedali, squamis antheriferis oblongis glabris tuberculoso-rugosis apice 
rostrato, rostro decurvo truncate 

a. foliolis omnibus integerrimis. (Tab. nostr. 4903.) 

ft. foliolis hie illic remote dentato-spinosis. 

Encephalartqs Caffer. Lehm. Pugill. v. 6. p. 11. Mia. Monogr. Cycad. p. 53. 

Cycas Caffra. " Thunb. Nov. Act. Reg. Soc. Ups. torn. 2. p. 283." 

Zamia Cycadis. Linn. Fit. Suppl.p. 443. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. p. 412. 

Zamia Caffra. Thunb. Fl. Cap. ed. Schult. p. 429. 

Encephalartus longifolia. Lehm. Pugill. v. 6. p. 14. Miq.l.c.p. 54. 

A desire to give a local habitation and a name, if possible, to 
this noble Cycadaceous plant, of which we have received at Kew 
splendid living specimens from various friends, our finest from 
J. Moxon, J. Brehem, and — Ariderne, Esqs., from the neigh- 
bourhood of Graham's Town, induce me to give a representation 
from imperfect materials, — imperfect from the absence of fruit- 
bearing amenta, in which probably the most dependable distin- 
guishing characters will be found to reside. Of the species to 
which it belongs, I would desire to speak with great caution ; and 

MARCH 1st, 1856. 

indeed several of the fourteen described species of the genus are 
generally, for want of complete specimens, unsatisfactorily distin- 
guished. Of those fourteen I had hesitated whether to refer our 
plant to the E. Coffer, a plant of Thunberg's discovery, or the /J. 
longifolius of Lehmann, two species which have so many points in 
common, that I have at length ventured to consider them the 
same and to adopt the older name.* Our specimens are cer- 
tainly liable to some variations in the greater or lesser length and 
breadth of the leaflets, and in their being sometimes wholly en- 
tire on a plant, while on other plants a considerable number is 
seen bearing one or two or three large, often patent, remote, 
spinous teeth, generally on one margin. 

E. Coffer, being a plant of the ' Hortus Kewensis/ might be 
expected to be an authentically named species in the Gardens of 
Kew; but none has of late years borne that name, and the one 
now before us is of recent importation ; but there is a fine old 
Encephalartus, introduced by Masson (as was the E. Caffer of 
H. K.), which I should have been disposed to refer to that species, 
if it had exhibited any disposition to toothing on the leaflets (and 
the two varieties given by Aiton are both toothed), and were it 
not that the leaves, especially the recently formed ones, are as 
glauco-pruinose as those of E. horridus, a peculiarity not noticed 
by any author as existing in E. Caffer. The plant to which 1 now 
allude (of which an atlas-folio figure was engraved from the 
pencil of Mrs. Withers, and published under the name of E. 
■pungens) has much longer leaves than those of our E. Caffer, five 
and a half feet long, not, or scarcely, recurved at the extremity, 
the leaflets larger and longer, more crowded, fifty-two to sixty on 
each side the rachis, all mucronated ; a male cone from it, pre- 
served it in the Museum, is two feet five inches long and eight 
inches in diameter ; and there is reason to believe it was a plant 
of the same species which produced a female cone at Lady Tan- 
kerville's, Walton-upon-Thames, in 1832, and was published by 
Mr. Chandler,! in three atlas-folio plates ; and as that plant is 
known to have gone to Chatsworth, it is probable that it was 
that which bore the fruit that was modelled there by James 
Yates, Esq., and of which he kindly presented a model to Kew, 
under the name of E. Caffer. 

In regard to the figures of E. Caffer and E. longifolius, referred 
to by Miquel, I regret that I have not access to either, and they 
are probably unimportant. 

The Encephalartus Caffer is the Bread-tree of the Caffers ; and 

* Dr. Lehmann thus distinguishes the two in his ' Pugillus ' : — 

E. Caffer ; caudice glabro, rachi trigono pinnisque lanceolatis acutis mucrona- 
tis viridibus glabris, junioribus dente uno alterove, adultis integris, fructu glabro. 

E. longifolius ; caudice glabro, rachi tetragono pinnisque lanceolatis acutis 
muticis integerrimis viridibus glabris, fructu glabro. 

f Under the incorrect name of Zamia pungens. 

the substance called Caffer-bread, Thunberg tells us, is " the me- 
dulla or pith (in other words, the cabbage, or young unformed 
leaves, while yet within the substance of the top of the trunk), 
from which the Hottentots contrive to prepare their bread. For 
this purpose, after scooping out the pith, they bury it in the 
earth, and leave it there for the space of two months to rot, after 
which they knead it and make it into a cake, which, in their 
usual slovenly and filthy manner, they slightly bake in the em- 
bers. I observed that the tree stood in dry and sterile places, 
between stones, and grew slowly." The seeds are also roasted 
and eaten. 

Our object now is to give the best description we can of the 
species under consideration. 

Descr. The individual from which our drawing was taken 
exhibits a trunk which, like the "Black-boys" (Xanthorrhcea) of 
Australia, had been blackened by the fires of the natives, is six 
and a half feet high,* erect, nearly cylindrical throughout, with 
a circumference of three and a half feet, the whole presenting on 
the surface, by the persisting bases of the fallen leaves, a kind 
of tessellated work, a compact tissue of areoles of a somewhat 
transversely rhomboidal form, all coming to the same level, so 
that no one projects beyond the rest. Near the summit the bases 
of the recently fallen leaves are more prominent, and give a tu- 
berculated character; all appear glabrous, in nowise villous or 
squamulose. Forming a beautiful crown on the scaly summit, 
arise the leaves, thirty or forty or more in number, spreading in 
all directions, three to three feet four inches long, more or less 
recurved, the outer ones for nearly their whole length, the rest 
more especially so at the apex, where they have a somewhat scor- 
poid character. The petiole is six or eight inches long, somewhat 
terete, the upper side however nearly plane, and having a sort of 
ridge in the centre, so that a transverse section (with the some- 
what keeled back) is obsoletely four-angled, one angle (the back) 
more rounded than the rest, and the same form runs through the 
rachis, as shown in our Fig. 1. These leaves are of a very harsh, 
rigid, and coriaceous character, lanceolate, pinnated for the 
whole length with numerous pinna, four to six inches long, five 
lines broad in the widest part ; these are somewhat obliquely set 
on to the margins formed by the nearly plane upper surface of 
the rachis, and are sessile, the very base spreading or decurrent 
both above and below into a kind of foot, which is paler-coloured 
than the leaf or rachis ; these pinnae are alternate, they rarely 
spread horizontally, but are erecto-patent with regard to the 
rachis, of a linear-lanceolate form, of a dark green colour, the 
lower ones, which are broader than the rest, ending in a strong 
mucronate point, the rest have a much shorter and less sharp 
point, which turns back (uncinate); the upper surface is the 

* Another of our specimens has the trunk eight feet high all but two inches. 

darkest-coloured and most glossy, is obsoletely tuberculated with 
small, raised, distant points, nearly plane, but sometimes slightly 
channelled or grooved in the centre, destitute of stria*, but in 
the young leaves the surface, under a rather strong lens, has a 
minutely furfuraceous appearance ; beneath the margin is slightly 
recurved, and there is a carina or slightly projective keel or 
midrib, and the surface is seen to be minutely and closely stri- 
ated ; the margin is quite entire, solitary, no single tooth in the 
plant now before us ; but we possess other plants, and of various 
ages, in which some of the leaves are as entire as iu this, while 
others have a greater or less number of leaflets with one or two 
or three remote teeth, generally on one (the lower) side or margin, 
and these are often large and spinulose, and as if effected by a 
gash, mostly near the base, approaching in character some of the 
lesser divisions in the leaflets of E. horridus, in no case confined 
to the apex of a branch, as the toothing is said to be in both the 
varieties of E. Coffer mentioned by Aiton.* 

Male Amentum one foot nine inches long, including the 
short, stout stipes, sixteen inches in girth, arising from the apex 
of the trunk and from the centre of the crown of leaves, con- 
sisting of- a number of scales attached to a central axis, united 
into the form of a nearly cylindrical, moderately acute cone, four 
inches in diameter. Each scale {anther, according to the views 
of those who compare, and with much reason, the floral organs 
of the Cycadea with those of Conifer a, — and, what are here 
called anther-cells, pollen-masses), — is about two inches long in 
the widest part of the amentum, broad, oblong-cuneate, thick, 
leathery, almost woody when old, tawny-brown, thicker in the 
middle and keeled on the under side, rough and tuberculated 
as if by a wrinkling of the substance, terminating in a kind of 
rostrum, more or less long and more or less truncated at its 
apex, which is curved downwards. The under side of this is 
covered with crowded, tawny-orange, one-celled, globose, firm 
and subcoriaceous, quite sessile anther-cells, splitting open on 
the anterior side longitudinally into two valves, and filled with 
a pale globose subpellucid powder, which, under a microscope, is 
seen to be marked with a transverse line. These anther-cells and 
their contents bear a most exact resemblance to the spores and 
spore-cases of Botrychium among Ferns. 

Fig. 1. Lower portion of a leaf. 2, 3. Upper and under side of a male scale 
of the male amentum or cone : — not. size. 4>, 5. Anther-cases. 6. Spores : — 

* Since this description was printed, I have received from James Yates, Esq., 
Lauderdale House, Highgate, a letter full of interesting information on this and 
other allied species of Encephalartus, too long for insertion, but which I trust 
will be allowed to appear in another place. He had however long ago considered 
our present plant to be E. Coffer, and E. longi/oHus a mere state of the same. 


Tab. 4904. 

RHODODENDRON Moulmainense. 

Moulmain Rhododendron. 

Nat. Ord. EmcEiE. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron Moulmainense; frutex. glaberrimus, foliis lato-lanceolatis sub- 
acuminatis utrinque nudis brevi-petiolatis, petiolis basi incrassatis, umbellis 
terminalibus, pedunculis flores lougitudine sequantibus nudis, calyce minutis- 
simo 5-lobo, corolla? (albae iutus flavesceatis) tubo elongato sulcato, limbi 
aubaequilongi lobis oblongo-ovatis undulatis patentibus, ovario oblongo pro- 
fuudc 6-sulcato 6-loculari, staminibus 10 limbo corolla? brevioribus, nlamentia 
basi pubescentibus, stylo paululum staminibus longiore. 

Recent botanists have clearly shown that in the eastern 
parts of the world, near the parallel of the Malay Islands, in 
mountain regions from Borneo and Java, south, to the Sikkim- 
Himalaya in the north, is the maximum of Rhododendrons to be 
found: witness Dr. Hooker's discoveries in the latter country, 
Griffith's and Mr. Booth's in the adjacent territory of Bootan, 
the Dutch botanists in Java, and Mr. Lowe's in Borneo. The 
native country of the species now figured is within the limits just 
mentioned, namely Moulmain, on the Gerai Mountains, at an 
elevation of 5000 feet above the level of the sea, where it was 
discovered by Mr. Thomas Lobb. It should be observed, that 
a dried specimen from Mr. Lobb, with the same locality, and 
apparently the same species, has red flowers. Seeds were reared 
by Messrs. Veitch of the Exeter and Chelsea Nurseries, and 
the flowering branch here figured was sent to us from a warm 
greenhouse in January of the present year. 

Descr. Shrub with reddish branches, and glabrous, as is every 
part of the plant, and destitute of the minute scales so common 
to many species of the genus. Leaves mostly spreading from the 
apex of a branch and, in the flowering specimen, just beneath the 
umbel, four to five inches long, broadly lanceolate, penninerved, 

MARCH 1st, 1856. 

shortly acuminate, coriaceous, dark green above, paler beneath. 
Petioles short, terete, swollen at the base. Flowers forming an 
umbel from the apex of the branch, but two or three arise toge- 
gether from different points. Peduncles about as long as the 
flowers. Calyx very minute, scarcely conspicuous, except when 
the corolla is removed, and then a small five-lobed disc is seen. 
Corolla pure white (in our specimen), tinged with yellow on the 
upper side within, infundibuliformi-campanulate. Tube mode- 
rately long, furrowed : lobes of the limb longer than the tube, 
spreading, oblong-obtuse, but apiculate, undulated. Stamens ten, 
spreading, shorter than the lobes of the corolla : filaments slightly 
thickened and villosely downy : anther small, oblong (abortive?). 
Ovary oblong, unusually narrow in this genus, deeply six-sulcate. 
Style glabrous, longer than the stamens. Stigma capitate, indis- 
tinctly lobed. 

Fig. 1. Flower: — nat. size. 2. Stamen. 3. Calyx and pistil. 4. Calyx ami 
ovary, the latter cut through transversely : — magnified. 

Tab. 4905. 


Tapering Lcelia. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Gynandkia Monandkia. 

Gen. Char. (§ Epidendrese.) Sepala explanata, lanceolata, sequalia. Petala 
majora, paulo difformia. Labellum (posticum) 3-partitum, lamellatum, circa co- 
lumuam convolutum. Columna aptera, carnosa, antice canaliculata. Anther a 
8-locularis. Pollinia 8, caudiculis 4 elasticis.— Herbse epiphytes, rhizomate^sew^o- 
bulboplioro. Scapi terminates, pauci- v. multiflori. Flores speciosi, odorati. Lindl. 

Lmlia. acuminata ; pseudobulbis ovatis compressis rugosis, foliis solitariis emar- 
ginatis scapo erecto brevioribus, floribus corymbosis, bracteis lineanbus acu- 
minatis ovario duplo brevioribus, sepalis linearibus petalisque lanceolatis 
undulatis acuminatis, labelli lobis lateralibus rotundatis intermedio lanceolate- 
undulato acuminata. Lindl. 

L^lia acuminata. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1841. t. 24. 

This delicate, graceful, and fragrant Lcelia is a native of Gua- 
temala, whence it was sent to the Horticultural Society by Mr. 
Hartweg, with the name of 'Flor de Jesus;" so called on ac- 
count of its beauty by the natives. It was discovered at a place 
called Retatulen, growing on the trunk of the Calabash-tree. 

From L. rubescens, Lindl. Bot. Reg., 1840, t. 41, its near ally, 
it differs, Dr. Lindley observes, "in its larger, wrinkled pseudo- 
bulbs, larger and more corymbose flowers, and m the different 
form of the labellum;" but as our plant (correctly named by 
Dr. Lindley) has the flowers of this species (Z. acuminata), but 
the small pseudobulbs of L. rubescens, it may admit of a doubt 
if the two be permanently distinct from each other. The only 
remedy would be to make a new species of this, which, seeing 
how liable to vary are the Orchideous plants in their pseudobulbs 
and leaves as well as in the flowers, we are very ill-disposed to 
do. Our plant flowered in November. 

Descr. Pseudobulbs in our plant small, clustered, broad ovate, 
compressed, convex on one side, almost plane on the other with 
a central elevated line, slightly wrinkled, surrounded with large, 
brown, ovate, acuminated scales, bearing at the summit an oblong, 

march 1st, 1856. 

rather acute, coriaceous, solitary leaf, four to five inches long, 
without visible nerves. From the base or axil of this leaf the 
slender, jointed, erect scape arises, about a foot high ; sheathed 
with a brown scale at every joint, terminated with four, spread- 
ing, white, graceful, fragrant Jlowers. Ovary long, pedunculi- 
form, subtended by a subulate bract, about half its length. Se- 
pals spreading, linear-oblong, rather acute. Petals oblong, nearly 
twice the width of and longer than the sepals, waved, much 
spreading. Lip about equal in length with the petals, pure 
white, as is the rest of the flower, but with a stain of yellow in 
the disc, which again at the base is deep purple, — oblong, 
three-lobed, veined in the middle and slightly downy on the 
surface ; the lateral lobes are incurved ; the intermediate ones 
oblong, acute, recurved towards the apex, acute, waved. Column 
furrowed in front. Anther-case hemispherical. Pollen-masses 
four in each anther-cell. 

Fig. 1. Labellum. 2. Column. 3. Pollen-masses. 


Tab. 4906. 
BANKSIA Victoria. 

Victorian Banksia. 

Nat. Ord. Proteace^e. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Flores in amentum exinvolucratum collecti, paribus tribracteatis. 
Perigonium quadripartitum vel quadrifidum. Stamina 4, apicibus concavis laci- 
niarum perigonii immersa. Squamulce hypogynse 4. Ovarium uniloculars Ovula 
2, collateralia, supra medium marginis affixa, promise latere exteriore longitudina- 
liter fisso, nucleum nudante. Stylus filiformis; stigma clavatum. FolUculus 
ligneus, bilocularis, ovulorum priminis in dissepimentum ligneum liberum bipar- 
tibile concretis. Semina 2, utrinque dissepimenti basi excavata? adplicita, superne 
in alam cuneatam producta. — Frutices vel arbores mediocres, in Nova Hollandia 
extratropica passim obvice, in littore intratropico rarissinue ; ramis umbellatis ; foliis 
sparsis, raro verticillatis, integris, serratis vel pinnatifido-incisis, in eadem stirpe 
sape variis, glandulis cutaneis Jujpogynis ; amentis solitariis, terminalibus vel raro 
lateralibus, cylindraceis vel interdum abbreviatis, bracteis aliquot brevibus angustis 
subtensis ; florum bracteis persistentibus majoribus solitariis, minoribus geminatis 
collateralibus, interioribus amenti fructiferi rachi ut plurimum incrassata et cum 
folliculorum basibus confer ruminata. Endl. 

Banksia Victories; ramis fulvo-tomentosis, foliis sparsis elongato-linearibus (6- 
10-pollicaribus) pinnatipartitis utrinque tomentosis subconcoloribus supra 
demum glabratis laevibus sinubus acutis, lobis late ovato-triangularibus sub- 
lsoscelis muticis incurvato-acuminatis, supra aveniis, subtus anguste nervoso- 
marginatis 6-8-nerviis albido-punctatis, capitulo terminali sessili foliis su- 
perato ovato amplo, squamis infimis longe rufo-barbatis, calyce pollicari basi 
glabra, stylo calycem superante arcuato glabra (v. villoso) apice incrassato, 
stigmate medio laeviter incrassato supra conico-cylindraceo infra attenuato. 

Banksia Victoria?. Meisn. New Austral. Prot. in Hook. Jour. Bot. 1855, v. 7. 
p. 119. 

Banksia speciosa. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1728 (no* Br.). 

A cut specimen of this fine Banksia was sent to us by Mr. 
Moore, of Glasnevin Botanical Garden, Dublin, which he raised 
from Swan River seeds from Mr. Drummond. There can, I 
think, be no doubt of its being the same with the B. speciosa 
above quoted in the Bot. Reg., but not the B. speciosa of Br. 
and Hook., Bot. Mag. t. 3052 ; and equally certain does it ap- 
pear to be the B. Victoria of Meisner in Hook. Journ. of Bot., 
who described his plant from Drummond 's Swan River Herba- 

MARCH 1st, 1856. 

rium, Coll. VI. n. 203. He there justly observes that it is " a 
noble species, very near B. speciosa, but easily distinguished by 
the segments of the leaves being larger, flat, not white under- 
neath, nor scrobiculate above •'* and he honours it with the name 
of our gracious Queen. He does not seem to be aware of the 
figure in the ■ Botanical Register/ which we quote. 

Descr. This probably forms a good -sized shrub : the branches 
terete, woolly and villous, bearing small reddish abortive leaf- 
buds in the axils of the leaves. Leaves about a span long, on 
short, villous petioles, in outline oblong-cuneate, singularly trun- 
cate at the apex, with tufts of hair at the apex of the midrib ; 
they are deeply pinnatifid, almost to the base, the lobes ovato- 
triquetrous, sharply acuminate, the lower margin longer than the 
upper one, the upper side even and more or less downy, dull 
green : beneath the lobes have many prominent parallel nerves, 
paler than the upper side, but not white, distinctly downy, mi- 
nutely reticulated between the nerves : midrib beneath promi- 
nent and rusty-coloured. Head of flowers large, nearly globose -. 
the flowers beautifully arranged in spiral lines. Bract eas cuneate, 
densely clothed with rusty-coloured hair, very long at the apex. 
Sepals silky with villous hairs, and style the same. Stigma subu- 

Fig. 1. Flower and bract. 2. A single bract : — magnified. 


Tab. 4907. 


Yellow-green Cymbidium. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Gynandma Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Periardhium explanatum, petalis sepalisque subaequalibus liberis. 
Labellum sessile, liberum, ecalcaratum, nunc laeviter contiatum, indivisum vel tri- 
lobum. Columna erecta, semiteres. Anthem bilocularis. Pollinia 2, saepius 
postice biloba, in glandulam subtriangularem subsessilia. Lindl. 

Cymbidium chloranthutn ; foliis ensifonnibus supra pseudobulbum breve ob- 
longum equitantibus obtusis supra medium planis recurvis, racemo stricto 
foliis breviore, bracteis minutissimis, sepalis petalisque obtusis, labeilo basi 
pubescenti apice retuso emarginato laciniis lateralibus nanis triangularibus, 
lamellis distantibus arcuatis verrucosis. Lindl. 

Cymbidium chloranthum. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1843, Mm. p. 102. 

A very pretty species, of a genus mostly of Indian origin, in- 
troduced twelve or fourteen years ago from Nepal by the Messrs. 
Loddiges. Its blossoming season with us is May. The flowers 
are numerous on the raceme, of a pale, greenish colour, the column 
and lip are more yellow and paler than the perianth, and the whole 
centre is marked with blood-red spots. 

Descr. Leaves springing from a swollen base or imperfect 

pseudo-bulb ; their bases, jointed at about three inches from the 

bottom, are distichous and sheathing, in other words equitant ; 

the blade of the leaf ensiform or loriform, recurved, narrowing 

below j the apex rather obtuse, the surface striated. Scape from 

the centre of the foliage, terete, shorter than the majority of the 

leaves, bearing a long, many-flowered raceme. Ovary narrow, 

clavate, tapering below into a pedicel. Petals and sepals, nearly 

uniform, spreading, oblong, obtuse, of a uniform yellow-green 

colour, spotted with blood-colour at the base. Lip broader than 

the sepals, yellowish-white, broad-oblong, obtuse, three-lobed, 

spotted with blood-red, especially near the base; lateral lobes 

small and incurved ; the middle lobe oval, scarcely retuse : on 

APRIL 1st, 1856. 

the disc, in the lower half, are two longitudinal, elevated, cre- 
nated, rather tuberculated crests. Column shorter than the lip, 
semiterete, yellow, sprinkled with small blood-coloured dots. 
Anther-case terminal, hemispherical. Pollen of two broadly 
ovate, cleft masses, sessile upon a small membranous gland. 

Fig. 1. Lip. 2. Column. 3, 4. Anterior and posterior view of the pollen- 
masses : — magnified. 


Fit&b cleLetlith. 

"Sneer* Brooks 1^' 

Tab. 4908. 
TUPIDANTHUS calyptratus. 

Calyptrate Tupidanthus. 

Nat. Ord. AraliacejE. — Polyandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Cliar. Tupidanthus, Hook. fil. et TJioms. Calycis tubus late clavatus v. 
hemisphsericus, cum pedicello continuus (uon articulatus), apice late explanatus, 
truncatus; limbus cum petalis iu calyptram coriaceam depressam deciduam arete 
concretus. Stamina plurima, patentia, ore calycis inserta ; filamentis crasse subu- 
latis ; antheris oblongis. Discus epigynus latissimus, obscure 4-8-lobus, centro 
depressus et rima stigmatifera 4-cruri v. 8-cruri iusculptus. Ovarium multilocu- 
lare, loculis angustissimis radiantibus rimaeformibus ; ovulis solitariis, pendulis ; 
stylo nullo. Bacca coriacea, multilocularis, polysperma. — Arbor alte scandens, 
puree ramosa, trunco ramisque subfuniformibus ; fobis longe petiolatis, digitatim 
sub-8-foliolatis ; foliolis petiolulatis, oblongo- v. obovato-lanceolatis, acuminatis, in- 
tegerrimis, glaberrimis ; umbellis lateralibus compositis ; pedunculis pedicellisque 
crassissimis, articulatis ; lloribus viridibus ; staminibus pallide stramineis. 

Tupidanthus calyptratus. Hook.Jil. et Thorns. MSS. 

This is perhaps the most remarkable plant of the Natural Or- 
der to which it belongs. It was discovered by Drs. Hooker and 
Thomson in the humid tropical forests at the base of the Khasia 
mountains in eastern Bengal ; but the plant in Kew, from which 
the accompanying drawing is taken, had been received from the 
Belgian Gardens, and was considered to be derived from Java. 
In its native forests it forms a gigantic climber, with a trunk 
which, though as thick as the human thigh at the base, is slen- 
der in proportion to the great dimensions which the plant attains. 
It ramifies very sparingly, and the flowers and leaves appear 
only towards the ends of the branches. In the stove at Kew 
it flowered while still erect, and about ten feet high. The flowers, 
when the calyptra remains attached, resemble mallets, whence 
the generic name. The coalescence of the calyx-lobes and corolla 
into an arched coriaceous calyptra, all of which had unfortunately 
fallen when our drawing was made, together with the numerous 
stamens, the total absence of styles, and very numerous cells of 
the ovary, are perhaps unique characters in the Order. The 
april 1st, 1856. 

flowers arc sometimes irregular, as if composed of two or three 
grown together. 

Descb. A scandent tree. Leaves or petioles a foot long, with 
a short stipular sheath at the base. Leaflets seven to nine, radi- 
ating from the apex of the petiole, petiolulate, six to ten inches 
long, obovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, quite entire and 
glabrous. Flowers in irregularly branched compound umbels; 
partial umbel of about eight rays," the pedicels as well as the pe- 
duncles or branches of the umbel are excessively stout and jointed 
to one another, but the flowers are not jointed on the pedicels. 
Flowers three-quarters to one and a quarter inch across, present- 
ing, after the falling away of the calyptra, a broad, flat, obscurely 
lobed disc, depressed in the centre, and then marked with a lon- 
gitudinal line, which is usually forked at both ends : the stigmatic 
surface follows this line and its branches; sometimes the line 
consists of three rays. On a transverse section of the ovary in- 
numerable slits are seen, radiating from a pulpy green placental 
mass, of the same form as that of the stigmatic surfaces. Each 
of these slits represents a cell, with one pendulous compressed 
ovule. Hook. fit. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Transverse section of ovary : — both magnified. 


Tab. 4909. 
CATTLEYA bicolor. 

Two-coloured Cattleya. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide/E. — Gynandria Mona.njdiua. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4700.) 

Cattleya bicolor ; foliis oblongo-lyratis caule tereti elato triplo brevioribus, se- 
palis lanceolatis falcatis acutis, petalis parum latioribus subundulatis obtu- 
sis, labcllo iiidiviso plauo apice dilatato rotundato creuato couvexo. Lindl. 

Cattleya bicolor. Lindl. Bot. Reg. sub fol. 1919. Lindl. Sertum Orchid. 
Plate V.f. 1. Bot. Reg. 1838, Misc. p. 80. 

"Epidendhe iridee. Descourlilz's Drawing, pi. 49. p. 105." 

The entire absence of the lateral lobes of the lip (which usu- 
ally enfold the column in this genus) gives this species a most 
remarkable appearance, and may after all possibly be indicative 
of one of those freaks of nature which are so common in the 
flowers of this natural family. The column is here quite ex- 
posed, presenting an unnatural appearance in the flower. The 
sepals and petals are of a peculiar lurid colour; but this circum- 
stance is in some degree compensated for by the delicate pink of 
the large fleshy column, and the deep rose-purple of the exposed 
upper side of the lip, with its white delicate fringe at the broad 
apex. The plant is a native of Brazil, and for a long time was 
only known in Europe by the drawing made on the spot by 
M. Descourtilz, published by Dr. Lindley. In 1838 it was an- 
nounced as having been imported by Messrs. Loddiges. Our 
specimen was sent us in October, 1854, from the collection of 
the late Mr. Cox. M. Descourtilz is stated to have found it in 
the neighbourhood of Bom Jesus de Bananal. 

Descr. Stems (or pseudo-bulbs) unusually long and slender for 
this genus, a foot or more in length, clustered, swollen and root- 
ing at the base, jointed and deeply striated, more or less clothed 
with sheathing, deciduous, pale-brown membranaceous scales; 
bearing two, spreading, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, coriaceous 

u'ril 1st, 1856. 


Stch AeLetMi . 

"Vmc«nt Brooks Imp 

Tab. 4910. 

Yellow Pentapterygium. 

Nat. Ord. Vacciniace^:. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus 5-alatus; limbus 5-partitus, Iobis ovatis. Corolla 
tubulosa, pentagona, 5-loba; lobis brevibus recurvis. Stamina 10, distincta; 
anthera muticse v. dorso brevissime biaristatse ; loculis in tubulos 2 coalitos apice 
liberos productis, ad apices antice dehiscentibus. Stigma truncatum. Bacca sub- 
globosa, coriaceo-carnosa, 5-alata, 5-locularis, Hmbo calycis coronata. Semina 
numerosissima, obovata. — Frutices Indici, sapissime epip/iytici, glaberrimi v. glan- 
duloso-pilosi ; foliis coriaceis, ovatis, breve petiolatis, persistentilus ; floribus axil* 
laribus, solitariis racemoskve, plerumque speciosis. — Pentapterygiunij Klotzsch in 
Linncea, v. 24. p. 47- 

Pentaptebygium flavum ; ramis robustis foliisque glaberrimis, foliis coriaceis 
undique patentibus brevissime petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis sub- 
serratis supeme rugoso-venosis subtus pallidioribus, floribus in racemos folio 
brevioribus aggregatis nutantibus, pedicellis calycibusque puberulis, calycis 
lobis triangulari-ovatis corolla flava subventricosa dimidio brevioribus. 

Thibaudia flava. Nuttall, MS. 

The beautiful plant here figured is a native of North-eastern 
India, in the Duphla hills, on trees, at an elevation of 4-5000 
feet above the sea-level, growing along with Rhododendron Nut- 
tallii, and was raised from seeds which Mr. Booth had collected 
by our valued friend and correspondent Mr. Nuttall, at his place 
of Nutgrove, Rainhill. Though not a showy, it is a remarkably 
elegant and ornamental plant, from the deep green glossiness of 
the wrinkled leaves and the nodding racemes of yellow flowers, 
whose pedicels are red; and the same colour runs down the 
wings of the calyx-tube and edges its lobes. The yellow colour 
is a very unusual one in the Order to which it belongs, the only 
hitherto described species of the genus, V. serpens (Wight, Ic. 
Plant. Ind. Or. iv. t. 1183, and Hook. fil. 111. Him. PL t. xv. B) 
having deep red corollas. The genus Pentapterygium is one of 
those into which the old Vaccinium has recently been broken by 
Klotzsch, and of the validity of all which genera we have many 

APRIL 1st, 1856. 

doubts : the present, however, is a very natural group of species, 
including, besides P.fiavum and P. serpens, the Vaccinium ntgo- 
sum of Drs. Hooker and Thomson's distributed Indian collec- 
tions, which is a native of the Sikkim Himalaya and Khasia 
mountains, and distinguished from P. fiavum by the lanceolate 
leaves, longer and more slender pedicels, broader foliaceous blunt 
calyx-lobes, and deep red corolla. The present species is erect 
when cultivated ; but, like many others of the Order, it probably 
prefers to grow epiphytically in shady forests. 

Descr. A shrub, with glabrous, stout, woody branches. Leaves 
two to three inches long, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, very 
shortly petioled, coriaceous, rugose above with reticulated veins, 
paler below. Flowers in short axillary racemes, pendulous or 
nodding. Peduncle short ; pedicels slender, red, minutely pubes- 
cent. Flowers an inch long. Calyx-tube short, hemispherical, 
five- winged ; limb five-lobed ; lobes triangular-ovate, acute, mar- 
gined with red. Corolla tubular, inflated, with five-angled and 
thick ribs, puberulous; lobes five, small, recurved. Stamens 
free ; f laments short, pubescent. Anther-cells oblong, produced 
into very long slender connate tubes, which are free at the apex, 
and open in front by long slits : two minute spurs project back- 
wards from the tip of the anther-cells. Disc depressed, ten-lobed. 
Style erect, slender, slightly enlarged towards the apex, truncate ; 
stigma of five minute glandular points, placed within the truncated 
apex of the style. Fruit probably somewhat fleshy, as in P. rugo- 
sum, Hook. fil. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. The same, with corolla and lobes of calyx removed. 
Stamens. 4. Disc -. — all magnified. 


Iitcli del e* 

"Vincent. Droo»c Imf 

Tab. 4911. 

ASPLENIUM Hemionitis. 

Hemionitis-like Spleenwort. 

Nat. Ord. Filices. — Cryptogamia Filices. 

Gen. Char. Sort lineares, elongati, dorso venae simplicis aut venulae superioris 
furcaturae, primaries, aut omnibus venulis insidentes. Indusium lineare, elonga- 
tum, planum. — Ehizoma subglobosum. Frondes fasciculate, coriacem ant herbaceee, 
simpllces, lobatm pinnatimque divisce. Yenae pinnate, crebre, internee aut parum 
subtus prominula, simplices aut uni-bifurcata, venulisque parallels, aut apice libero 
punctiformi acutove terminate, aut arcu transverso conjunct^. Presl. 

Asplenium Hemionitis; caespitosum, stipite semiterete facie superiore sulcato 
basi setoso-paleaceo, fronde circumscriptione hastato-5-loba, lobo 
medio elongato acuminata, venulis omnibus soriferis apice intra marginem 
clavatis, soris elongatis. 

Asplenium Hemionitis. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1537. Brot. PL Lus. v. 2. p. 398. 
Sm. Tent. Fil. Gen. p. 9. (not of Swartz and Cavanilles.) 

Asplenium palmatum. Lam. Encycl. v. 2. p. 302. Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 75. (excl. 
Syn. Lam. III. t. 867. /. 2.) Willd. Sp. PL v. 5. p. 306. ScMuh; Fil. 
p. 62. t. 66. Webb, Plant. Canar. v. 2. p. 438. (excl. Syn. Lam. HI.) 

Felix Hemionitis dicta, Maderensis, Hederae arboreae aliquatenus aemula. Pluk. 
Aim. p. 155. PJiyt. t. 287./. 4. 

We are glad to embrace an opportunity of figuring this hand- 
some Fern, partly on account of its beauty, and partly because 
it gives us the means of correcting some synonyms. It inhabits 
shady places in woody regions of North-western Africa, as far 
south as St. Nicholas, in the Cape de Verdes, the Azores, the 
Canaries, Madeira, and Spain and Portugal: in short, the 
south-western parts of Europe and north-western of Africa, in- 
cluding the adjacent islands. The plant requires a cool green- 
house for its cultivation. 

It has no doubt been confounded with the Scolopendrium He- 
mionitis, Sw. (Schkuhr, Fil. t. 84), to which probably Linnseus's 
locality of " Italy" belongs (taken, it would appear, from Clu- 
sius) ; for our plant does not appear to be a native of Italy at 
all. Swartz and Willdenow indeed refer the Linnaean Asplenium 

APRIL 1st, 1856. 

Hemionitis without any doubt to the Scolopendrium ; but Smith 
corrects this error under that genus in Rees's Cyclopaedia: "As- 
plenium Hemionitis of Swartz, Cavanilles, and others, has no- 
thing of the character of the genus, except when two lines, ori- 
ginating in different lobes or rudiments of lobes, rarely and acci- 
dentally meet in opposition to each other ;" and, in his excellent 
' Tentamen Bot. de Eilicurn generibus dorsiferarum' (p. 9), Asple- 
nium Hemionitis is given the example of the true genus Asplenium, 
We therefore feel ourselves quite justified in restoring the Lin- 
naean name. 

Mr. Kippist has been so good as to examine carefully the spe- 
cimens of Asplenium Hemionitis and of Scolopendrium Hemionitis 
in the Linnaean and Smithian Herbaria, at the apartments of the 
Linnaean Society, and to communicate the following information, 
which is of more value than a bare description, especially as the 
figure represents all the essential characters. 

" There can be no doubt that Sir J. E. Smith is perfectly 
right in referring the Asplenium Hemionitis, L., to that genus 
instead of to Scolopendrium, as is done by Swartz, Willdenow, 
etc. The type specimen in the Linnaean Herbarium, which is 
in good fruit, named and numbered (' 2,' to agree with the first 
edition of the Species Plant.) in Linnaeus's own hand, is clearly 
an Asplenium, with long, slender, closely-placed lines of fructifi- 
cation, extending nearly to the midrib and indusia, bursting to- 
wards the apex of the leaf, or of the lobe on which they are 
placed. The fronds are truly palmate, scarcely longer than broad 
(five-lobed, with the two posterior lobes more or less rounded), 
and usually shorter than their slender glabrous petioles. This 
is the Asplenium palmatum of Lamarck, Willdenow, etc., and is 
also the plant figured under that name by Schkuhr (tab. 66), as 
well as by Tournefort (Instit. tab. 322 b.). On a ticket fastened 
to the sheet is the following memorandum, in a hand with which 
I am unacquainted, probably that of the correspondent from 
whom Linnaeus received the specimen : ' Asplenium frondibus 
hastato-5-angularibus basi cordatis, stipitibus glabris. In monte 
alto, quo situm est castellum vetustum, prope Cintra Lusitanis/ 

" Of this plant, there are specimens more or less lobed in the 
Herbarium of Sir J. E. Smith ; (1.) from the younger Linnaeus's 
Herbarium, without habitat; (2.) two fronds, one of them ex- 
actly cordate in outline, though the tendency to produce lobes is 
shown by the arrangement of the sori near the base of the frond, 
in double rows, with indusia opening towards the two lateral 
nerves, instead of towards the apex of the frond ; (3.) a young 
plant and two detached fronds, marked ' Broussonet, 1798, Al- 
giers ? ' They are all glued upon one sheet, on which is written, 
in Smith's hand, 'A. Hemionitis?' 

" Of the Scolopendrium Hemionitis of Willdenow, and (ex- 

eluding the Linnaean synonym) apparently also of Swartz, the 
plant figured in Lamarck's Encyclop. t. 867, f. 2, by -Tournefort 
(Instit. tab. 322 a.), and by Schkuhr (t. 84), the LinnEean Her- 
barium likewise contains specimens. These, which are readily 
distinguishable from the true Asplenium Hemionitis, L., by the 
contour of the frond, much longer in proportion both to its" own 
breadth (across the basal lobes) and to the length of the stipes, 
Linnaeus appears to have confounded with the common Scolo- 
pendrium, his Asplenium Scolopendrium, of which he had, 1st, the 
normal form, on a separate sheet, named ' Scolopendria' (taking, 
according to his usual practice in the Herbarium, the generic 
name for granted), in his own hand, and with the number (3) 
of the Spec. PL prefixed ; 2ndly, on another sheet, the dicho- 
tomous variety, figured by Schkuhr (tab. 83 b.), unnamed ; and 
3rdly, the 8c. Hemionitis, without habitat or number, but with 
the name 'Scolopendria written in ink by himself, and with the 
addition 'nova species?' in pencil, by Smith. Of this plant, I 
find, in the Smithian Herbarium, 1st, one small and unsatisfac- 
tory frond, scarcely distinguishable from 8c. vulgare, marked 
' Rome, H. L. fil. ; 2nd, one young plant and two detached 
fronds in good fructification, marked ' South of Europe, Brous- 
sonet\ One of these has well-developed lobes at the base, and 
agrees perfectly with Schkuhr's figure. They are all on one 
sheet, inscribed by Sir James, ' Scolopendrium Hemionitis, Sw. 
Syn. Fil. 90.' The only specimens of this species in the Her- 
barium of the British Museum are stated to have been gathered 
on the walls of the Pantheon, at Rome, by Mr. Yalden. 

"Clusius gives 'Roma ex veteris cujusdam theatri minis ' as 
the habitat of his Hemionitis vera, correctly referred by Swartz 
to his Scolopendrium Hemionitis. He does not quote as a sy- 
nonym the Hemionitis peregrina of the same author, which he 
surely might have done with perfect safety, especially as he cites 
Petiver's figure, 126, fig. 5, which is manifestly copied from the 
woodcut of Clusius." 

Kg. 1. Portion of a fertile frond, showing the venation and the sori. 2. Cap- 
sule. 3. Spores: — magnified. 

i-'h ' 

Titch del 

Vincent Brooks imp. 

Tab. 4912. 


Scarlet-flowered Correa. 

Nat. Ord. Diosme^e. — Octandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 4-dentatus, persistens. Petala 4, basi subconniventia aut 
in tubum longe coalita. Stamina 8, sub disco hypogyno 8-glanduloso inserta. 
Ovarium^ 8 -sulcatum. Stylus 1, persistens. Capsula 4-cocca, loculis truncatis 
compressis. Semina in loculis 2-3 nitida intus adfixa, cotyledonibus ovalibus 
extus convexis. — Frutices ; foliis oppositis, integris, pube squamosa, Hippophaes 
more, obtectis; pedicellis unifloris. Be Cand. 

Correa cardinalis ; ramis gracilibus, ramulis foliisque utrinque pube fasciculata 
pallide ferruginea instructis, foliis remotis subunciabbus brevi-petiolatis 
patentibus v. reflexis elliptico-lanceolatis obtusiuscidis integerrimis margine 
recurvis supra viridibus opacis subtus pallidis nervis obsoletis, pedicellis 
elongatis gracillimis folio longioribus unifloris apice bibracteatis, bracteis 
folio conformibus sed duplo minoribus, floribus nutantibus, calyce hemi- 
sphaerico truncato obsoleto 4-dentato rufescente-tomentoso, corollas pubes- 
centi-tomentosse tubo subclavato (coccineo), Umbo 5-fido luteo lobis erectis 
acutis, staminibus 8 sublonge exsertis. 

Correa cardinalis. Muell. in Herb, nostr. cum MS. 

Raised from Australian seeds by Messrs. Veitch, of the Nur- 
series of Exeter and Chelsea, where the plant forms a handsome 
bush two to three feet high, with graceful, slender branches, 
leaves full dark green above, pale and whitish beneath, all the 
younger branches bearing drooping flowers an inch and an inch 
and a quarter long, of a rich scarlet colour, the segments or lobes 
of the limb only yellow. The filaments of the stamens again are 
exserted more than a quarter of an inch beyond the erect limb. 
We hardly know a more desirable greenhouse plant, flowering as 
it does in the beginning of March. Our Herbarium shows the 
plant to be identical with the Correa cardinalis of Dr. Ferdinand 
Mueller (now on the Exploring Expedition in North-west Aus- 
tralia), and which he discovered " about, the Latrobe River, in 
sandy, bushy places of the hills, and in the sterile plain of Port 
Albert, Gipps' Land, Colony of Victoria, South Australia." It is 
quite distinct from any hitherto published species. 

APRIL 1st, 1856. 

Descr. A shrub two to three feet high, with slender, twiggy, 
opposite, brown, terete branches; the young ones clothed with 
minute, tufted, stellated, ferruginous hairs. Leaves opposite, on 
short, slender jp etioles, about an inch long, subcoriaceous, ellipti- 
cal-lanceolate, scarcely acute, the margin recurved and entire, 
clothed with minute, stellated hairs, above dark green, very pale 
and whitish, nerves obsolete. Peduncles axillary, long, slender, 
single-flowered, much longer than the leaves, bearing a single, 
large, drooping flower of a rich scarlet and yellow colour, with a 
pair of leaf-like bracteas just beneath the calyx. Calyx hemi- 
spherical or cup-shaped, ferruginously downy, truncate, with four 
minute almost obsolete teeth. Corolla more than an inch long, 
tubular, but approaching to clavate, rather narrow, downy ; limb 
rather small, of four erect teeth. Stamens protruded a quarter of 
an inch beyond the limb, unequal ; filaments glabrous, the shorter 
ones more dilated at the base than the larger ones. Ovary deeply 
four-lobed, villous : style as long as the stamens, w r ith spreading 
distant hairs in the lower portion. 

Pig. 1. Stamens. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 


Vxacsnx. Br 


■***, ' . ''■■' •■•.■ 1 iiu\\\\v 


Vmceiii Brooks Imp. 

Tabs. 4913, 4914. 

PHYTELEPHAS macrocarpa. 

Large-fruited Ivory-Plant. 


Gen. Char, emend. Ilores polygami-dioici, masculi et fceminei, cum stamiuibus, 
quorum antherae steriles, indistinctis spadicibus, spathis inclusis. Masculi : — 
Spadix specie simplex, cylindricus, pedunculo squamis nonnullis instructo, rachi 
floribus densissime obtecto. Mores in prominentiis racheos brevibus (ramis de- 
curtatis ?) arete glomerati, bractea et calyce minimis sagpe delitescentibus. Bractea 
ovata, concava. Sepala tria : duo literalia majora, bractea? similia, tertium pos- 
ticum illis tectum. Stamina numerosa (36), e thoro. Filamenta filiformia. An- 
thers lineares, erectae, fere basifixse, biloculares, connectivo mucronulata?. Pollen 
ellipticura, longitudinaliter sulcatum. Fceminei : — Spadix simplex, squamis con- 
pluribus spiratim dispositis obsessus, vertice^om nonnullos gerens, inter squamas 
absconditos, qui constant pistillo et staminibus numerosis illud cingentibus, an- 
theris sterilibus. Ovarium subglobosum, loculis 6-9. Stylus terminalis, erectus, 
apice tripartitus, cruribus subulatis, unico simplici rariusve bifido, binis bifidis, 
divisionibus intus stigmatosis. Ovula solitaria, sessilia, erecta, integumento 
duplici. Drupce (6-7) in capitulum maximum ponderosum aggregates, depresso- 
globoste, deorsum cuneato-augulatas, subpentagonse, muricato-tuberculatse et 
maturae crasso-corticatae, tuberculis sursum majoribus, longitudinaliter fibrosis 
et ex parte supra verticem fructus convergentibus, 6-9-loculares. Semina in 
loculis solitaria, e fructus angulis centralibus oblique adscendentia, hilo magno 
convexo cicatricoso, oblongo-obovata, introrsum bifacialia. Testa crassa, ossea, 
laevigata ; membrana interna vasis ramosis percursa. Albumen osseum, solidum. 
Embryo periphericus, juxta hilum subbasilaris. Germinatio per chordam elongatam 
remotiva. — Planta palmaformis ; caudice mediocri, crasso, erecto vel decumbente. 
Folia omnia terminalia, magna, pinnatisecta, segmentis reduplicatis, multinerviis et 
venis transversa conspicuis ; floribus odoratissimis. Seem. Bot. Herald, p. 205. 

Phytelephas macrocarpa. Ruiz et Pavon, Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. et Clnl.p. 301. 

Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. v. 1. p. 83. Kunth, Enwn. v. 3. p. 109. Mart. 

Palm. v. 3. p. 306. Hook. Journ. of Bot. and Kew Misc. v. I. p. 204. Seem. 

Bot. Herald-, pp. 208, t. 45, 46, 47. Ejusd. Bonpl. vol. 3. p. 270. t. 1 et 2. 
Elephantusia macrocarpa. Willd. Spec. v. 4. p. 1156. 

Those who deplore that the great geological convulsions de- 
prived the New World of its ivory-bearing animals, and only 
suffered their remains to be preserved in the deposits ascribed to 
the drift period of our times, may derive some consolation from 
the fact that there still exists in the virgin forests of tropical 

MAY 1st, 1850. 

America an ivory-bearing plant — the Phytelephas macrocarpa, 
Ruiz et Paw. producing a substance so exactly resembling to the 
eye the ivory obtained from elephants as to be frequently passed 
off for such, and even employed by mechanics, as far as its size 
will allow, in place of that article. When the Vegetable Ivory 
first came to be imported into Europe for commercial purposes 
has not yet been accurately ascertained ; but there is reason to 
believe that it was shortly after the Spanish Colonies — its native 
country — obtained their independence (about the year 1826). 
Be that as it may, the vegetable ivory is now imported, chiefly 
from the river Magdalena, into Europe and the United States of 
America ; but we are still uncertain to what amount, as we have 
no statistical information on that point ; judging however from 
the use that is made of the article, the amount must be consider- 
able. I know, from the inquiries instituted by Eerd. Scheer, 
Esq., that in some years no less than a hundred and fifty tons of 
it were imported into England ; and that the " nuts " are' shipped 
from the places where they grow in large quantities is evident 
from Purdie mentioning, in one of his letters to Sir W. J. Hooker 
(Botanical Magazine for 1847, comp. p. 14) : — "A few days ago 
(about the middle of February, 1845) thirty tons of the 'nuts' 
arrived from the Magdalena (at Santamarta), commissioned for 
(the United States of) America and Germany." The " nuts " 
may be purchased in the toyshops of the British metropolis for 
a few pence each, but when bought in large quantities they are 
obtainable at a very much cheaper rate; in August, 1854, one 
thousand " nuts " were sold in London for seven shillings and 

Long before the attention of commercial men was directed to 
the vegetable ivory, the existence of the plant producing it was 
known to botanists. It was during the latter part of the last 
century that two Spaniards, Ruiz and Pavou, gave, in their 
' Systema Vegetahilium Elorse Peruvianse et Chilensis,' published 
at Madrid in J 798, a scientific name {Pliytdephas macrocarpa, 
R. et P.) to it, together with a brief description and a notice of 
its Peruvian names, and its properties and uses. The generic 
name (from <f>vrov, a plant, and eXefas, an elephant) was certainly 
well chosen, and has ever since been retained in systematical 
works in preference to that proposed by Willdenow {Elephant n ski 
macrocarpa) ■ unfortunately the diagnosis attached to it was very 
imperfect, the reason why the plant has to this day remained 
without a fixed station in the Natural System. A short time 
after the publication alluded to, Humboldt and Bonpland disco- 
vered the Phjtdcphas macrocarpa in New Granada, and collected 
some information concerning it, which however, useful as it 
proved m many respects, did not throw much light upon it in a 

systematic point of view. Nor did Gaudichaud'a labours tend 
much to advance our knowledge in that direction. That botanist 
did not see the plant growing wild, and his three plates of it, 
published in the c Partie Botanique, Voyage de la Bonite, 5 unac- 
companied as they are by any explanatory description, are almost 
unintelligible, and moreover they show that he held extravagant 
notions respecting the species of which the genus is composed ; 
he fancying that it was a congregate of no less than ten, all of 
which he seems to have thought sufficiently characterized by the 
shape of the seeds — a most variable organ in this instance. In 
1845 and 1846 Purdie, acting upon instructions from the Royal 
Botanic Gardens at Kew, did a great deal towards clearing the 
mist in which the Ivory plant had been so long enveloped. In 
1848, Martius, in his famous work on Palms, gave, partly from 
Gaudichaud's figures, partly from imperfect specimens in his 
possession, a generic character of Pliytelephas (Mart., Hist. Nat. 
Palmarum, vol. iii. p. 306), which greatly tended to place the or- 
ganization of this remarkable plant in a clearer light. Morren 
(Dodonaea, vol. iii. part ii. p. 74) also wrote some valuable remarks 
on the seeds of it. In 1849, Sir W. J. Hooker contributed his 
share towards the perfection of our knowledge (Hooker's Journal 
of Botany and Kew Gard. Misc. vol. i. p. 204) by reproducing not 
only the pith of nearly all that had been written upon the sub- 
ject, but also added some valuable observations of his own, as 
well as a detailed description of the fruit and seed ; and he illus- 
trated his paper with two plates, the one representing a view of 
a grove of Ivory-plants on the banks of the Magdalena (from a 
sketch of Edward Mark, Esq.); the other, the fruit, seed, and 
several toys made from the albumen. In December, 1847, whilst 
ascending the river Cupica, I had the good fortune to fall in with 
the Ivory-plant, and afterwards met with it in various other parts 
of Darien. A selection from the notes taken on those occasions 
was subsequently published (Hooker's Journal of Botany and 
Kew Gard. Misc. vol. iii. p. 303, and ' Narrative of the Voyage 
of H.M.S. Herald,' vol. i. p. 222). It contained a general de- 
scription of the plant, and dwelt upon the close relationship of 
Phyteleplias with Pandanece. Since then there has not been, so 
far as I know, any additional information given to the world ; 
and it only remains for me to draw up an account of this re- 
markable production, as perfect as the various materials, pub- 
lished and unpublished, at my disposal will permit. 

The Ivory plant is confined to the continent of South America, 
where it grows between the 9th degree of north and the 8th of 
south latitude, and the 70th and 79th of west longitude. It in- 
habits damp localities, such as confined valleys, banks of rivers 
and rivulets, and is found not only on the lower coast region, as 

in Darien, but also on mountains at an elevation of more than 
3000 feet above the sea, as in Ocana. Amongst the Spaniards 
and their descendants it is known by the name of " Palma de 
marfil " (Ivory Palm), whilst its fruit is called by them " Cabeza 
de Negro" (Negro's head), and its seed "Marfil vegetal" (vege- 
table ivory). The Indians on the banks of the Magdalena term 
the plant " Tagua," those on the coast of Darien " Anta," and 
those of Peru "Pullipunta" and "Homero." It is generally 
found in separate groves, seldom intermixed with other trees or 
shrubs, and where even herbs are rarely met with, the ground ap- 
pearing as if it had been swept. The trunk is always pulled 
down, partly by its own weight, partly by its aerial roots ; and 
thus forms a creeping caudex, which is frequently twenty feet 
long, but is seldom higher than six feet. The top is crowned with 
from twelve to twenty pinnatisect leaves, the entire length of 
which is from eighteen to twenty feet. The segments are towards 
the base of the leaf alternate, towards the apex opposite ; they 
are three feet long, two inches broad, and their entire number 
amounts generally to 160. All the plants which I saw were 
dioecious, the males always being more robust, and their trunks 
more erect and higher, than the females. The inflorescence of both 
emits a most penetrating almond-like smell. The infloresence 
of the male plant is a simple, fleshy, cylindrical spadix, which has 
three or four spathes, the flowers of which are densely crowded 
together, and sessile. They are generally furnished with a small 
bract, and a calyx consisting of three sepals. The stamens are 
numerous (thirty-six), the filaments filiform, the anthers linear, 
erect, affixed nearly at the base, and bilocular; the connective is 
mucronulate, and the pollen elliptical and furrowed lengthways, 
the inflorescence of the female plant has three or four spathes, 
and consists of a simple spadix, bearing on an average from six 
to seven flowers, which form a dense cluster, and are surrounded 
by bracts, placed in a spiral direction, the uppermost five of 
which, being often much longer than the style, but generally 
shorter, and pure white, have the appearance of petals; the sta- 
mens are numerous, free, sterile, inserted in the torus between 
the petaloid bracts and the ovary. The ovary is from six- to 
nine-celled, each cell containing a solitary, sessile, erect ovule 
attached to an axile placenta. The style is elongated, splitting 
into six, seven, eight, or nine branches, stigmatose on the edges 
Hie fruit, a collection of from six to seven drupes, forms clusters 
which are as large as a man's head, and stands at first erect but 
when approaching maturity— its weight increasing, and the leaf- 
stalk, which, having up to that period supported the bulky mass 
having rotted away— it hangs down. A plant bears at one time 
from six to eight of these heads, each weighing, when ripe, about 

twenty-five pounds. The drupes are covered outside with hard 
woody protuberances, formed in the same manner as those of the 
trunk of Testudinaria elephanthipes. Each drupe contains from 
six to nine seeds, but generally seven. The testa is thick, bony ; 
the embryo peripherical, and placed near the hilum. 

In habit, the Phytelephas macrocarpa resembles the Corozo 
Colorado (Mais melanococca, Gasrtn.); so much so indeed, that 
at first sight the two are easily mistaken for each other. Both 
have trunks which, after creeping along the ground a few yards, 
ascend, and attain about an equal height. Their leaves also re- 
semble each other ; and their fruit grows in a similar way, at- 
tached to comparatively short peduncles. The habit, however, is 
nearly the only link which connects Phytelephas with the order 
of Palms : its simple spadix, its imperfect flower, its indefinite 
number of stamens, and its embryo situated in the axis of a 
fleshy albumen, separate it from Palms, and proclaim it (in con- 
junction with other characters which it presents) a member of 
Endlicher's class Spadicijtora and Lindley's Alliance Arales. Bo- 
tanists enumerate four Orders as belonging to that great division 
(Pistiacea, Pandanece, Typhacece, and Aroidea). To Pistiacece 
and Pandanece it cannot belong, because it has an axile placenta- 
tion. Amongst Typhacea it cannot be placed, because it has a 
multiovular ovary. With Aroidea it cannot be associated, be- 
cause it has a drupaceous fruit. Repelled by these and other 
considerations from placing it with any of the Natural Orders 
above mentioned, and finding it impossible to trace out any rela- 
tionship of it with any other group than the Spadiciflora, we are 
compelled to adopt the views of Martius, who looks upon it as 
the type of a new Natural Order (Phytelephanthea;). 

The uses of the Ivory-plant may, as far as they are known, be 
summed up in a few words. The Indians cover their cottages 
with the leaves of it, but only when those of Palms are not pro- 
curable, as the latter last much longer than the former. The seed 
at first contains a clear insipid fluid, with which travellers allay 
their thirst; afterwards this same liquor becomes milky and 
sweet, and it changes its taste by degrees as it acquires solidity, 
until at last it is almost as hard as ivory. The liquor contained 
in the young fruits turns acid if they are cut from the tree and 
kept some time. Prom the kernels (albumen) the American In- 
dians as well as European turners fashion the knobs of walking- 
sticks, the reels of spindles, and little toys, which are whiter than 
animal ivory, and equally hard, if they are not put under water; and 
if they are, they become white and hard when dried again. Bears, 
hogs, and turkeys devour the young fruit with avidity. Purdie 
says : — " Enclosing the seeds is a yellow, sweet, oily pulp, which 
is collected at the proper season (October), and sold under the 

name of Pipa de Tagua, for one real a pound at Ocana ; a spoon- 
ful of it, with a little sugar and water, makes the celebrated 
Chk-ha de Tagua, said to be the most delicious beverage of New- 
Granada." This statement is difficult to reconcile with the in- 
ternal organization of the fruit, and requires some emendations. 
Purdie wrote the letter in which it is contained in July, 1845, 
after he first saw the Ivory-plant, when he could not know, from 
personal experience, what took place in October following. He 
must have gathered it, therefore, from information obtained from 
the native inhabitants, who, not being versed in botanical termi- 
nology, might easily have made a mistake. The "yellow, sweet, 
oily pulp " can, in my opinion, be nothing save the second state 
into which the albumen enters, previous to its becoming solid ; 
and I am the more inclined to think that this opinion is correct, 
as it is borne out to a certain extent by analogy, For in the 
Isthmus of Panama, and other localities of New Granada, the 
name of Pipa is applied to a beverage prepared from the young 
albumen of cocoa-nuts, and in a similar way as that described 
by Purdie. The same author proceeds :■ — " It has, however, a 
slightly drastic property. Although this substance contains much 
oil, it never becomes rancid by keeping, but at the end of nine 
months it preserves, in a crude state, all its flavour and quality." 
Introduced in our gardens by Purdie, the Ivory -plant has al- 
ready produced flowers in two places, — a male specimen in 1852 
at Schonbrunn ; a female in 1855, at Kew; and it is from the 
latter that figs. 3-9 of Tab. 4914 are made. B. Seemann. 

Tab. 4913. Male and female plant, much reduced ; the female, flower portion, 
from the living plaut at Kew ; the rest from drawings made by Mr. Mark. 

Tab. 4914. Fig. 1. Portion of a male spadix and spathe from a dried native 
specimen, nat. size. 2. Stamen, magnified. 3. Section of a female spadix, 
nat. size. 4. Single flower. 5. Pistil, the ovary surrounded by numerous sterile 
stamens. 6. Ovary, with most of the sterile stamens removed. 7 and 8. Vertical 
and transverse section of an ovary. 9. Ovule, more or less magnified. There 
are besides a seed entire and a section of a seed, nat. size. 


Tab. 4915 
SAXIFRAGA ciliata. 

Fringed Saxifrage. 

Nat. Ord. Saxifrages. — Decandria Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-sepalus, sepalis plus minus inter se et saepe cum ovario co- 
alitis. Petala 5, rariter irregularia, breviter unguiculata, integra. Stamina 10, 
5 sepalis, 5 petalis opposita ; antherce biloculares. Capsula calyci adnata vel li- 
bera; carpella 2, ssepe usque ad stylum coalita. Semina numerosa, rugosa vel 
kcvia, in plurimis seriebus disposita. Spermodermia ultra nucleum ovoideum 
non productum. — Herbal perennes vel annua, sapissime valde polymorphs in eadem 
specie. Flores seepms paniculati vel corymbosi, abortu solitarii. De Cand. 

Saxifraga (§ Bergenia) ciliata; foliis ovalibus basi apiceque obtusis sub- 
coriaceis utrinque hirsutis ciliatis crenato-serratis basi amplo-vaginatis, scapo 
rigido glabro, paniculo cymoso, calyce magno laxo 5-lobo lobis late ovatis 
serrulatis, petalis ovatis brevi-unguiculatis, ovario libera. 

Saxifraga ciliata. Royle, Blurt. II. Himal. p. 226. t. 49./. 2. Walp. Repert. 
v. 2. p. 365. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1843, t. 65. 

This, together with S. ligulata and the Siberian 8. cras-si- 
folia, so well known in our gardens, are certainly amongst the 
handsomest and best worth cultivating of our Saxifrages. The 
two latter are figured in the earlier volumes of the Magazine 
{8. crassifolia at Tab. 193— tf. ligulata at Tab. 3406). We 
follow other authors in publishing this as a species distinct from 
S. ligulata ; but it is very doubtful if it be really so. It inhabits 
the same mountains in Northern India (Himalaya), on the Mus- 
sooree and Suen Range, etc.; but, according to Dr. Royle, at 
lower elevations than the S. ligulata. It chiefly differs in its 
smaller size, more oval leaves (not attenuated at the base), which 
are hairy all over. Dr. Lindley's S. ciliata (Bot. Reg. f. 65) 
seems exactly intermediate, and we venture to think the two 
may be safely united as varieties of one and the same species. 
Although considered hardy, yet, as its flowering season is early 
in the spring, we find the protection of a frame or a cool green- 
house is necessary for the full development of its blossoms. 

may 1st, 1856. 

We made the same remark on the S. lingutata. They have 
neither of them the hardy character of the S. crassifolia. 

Descr. The root-stock is large, thick, woody, horizontal, 
branched. The leaves spring from the apex of the branches 
and from amongst acuminated brown scales, and are patent, 
spreading, nearly horizontally, on the ground, elliptical, or rarely 
approaching to obovate, fleshy and somewhat coriaceous, obtuse 
at both ends, coarsely crenato-serrate, penninerved, hairy on both 
sides, and strongly ciliated at the margin : petioles from half an 
inch to an inch long, having at the base large, lax, sheathing, 
membranaceous, concave, ciliated stipules. Scape arising from 
the centre of the leaves and crown of the root, glabrous, red. 
Flowers in a cymose panicle, large. Pedicels red. Calyx large, 
lax, inferior, greenish, tinged with red, five-lobed ; lobes large, 
oval. Petals large, white, ovate, on short broad claws. Stamens 
ten, shorter than the petals. Ovary quite free, with two, or oc- 
casionally three, erect styles. Stigmas large, capitate. 

Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Pistil : — mayttijied. 


breaks h 

Tab. 4916. 
CATTLEYA Skinneri : var. parviflora. 

Mr. Skinner s Cattleya : small-flowered var. 

Nat. Ord. Orchidace^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4700.) 

Cattleya Skinneri; pseudobulbis valde incrassatis oblongis basi attenuatis, 
foliis binis oblongis obtusis, pedunculo plurifloro, sepalis oblongis, petalis 
ovato-rotundatis, labello panduriformi obscure trilobo lobis lateralibus con- 
volutis terminali lato brevi retuso disco canaliculate, columna perbrevi. 

Cattleya Skinneri. Batem. Orchid. Mexic. et Guatem. t. 13. Lindl. Bot. Beg. 
1840. Misc. n. 83. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4270. 

Var. parviflora. Tab. Nostr. 4916. 

Cattleya Skinneri; parviflora. Lindl. MS. 

When Mr. Skinner last returned from Guatemala he brought 
with him a small packet containing the flowers of three different 
Orchids, which he found growing " from the same stock." One 
was Cattleya Skinneri, another was a dark crimson variety of 
Epidendrum Skinneri, the third, which was smaller than the 
first but larger than the second, he suspected to be a hybrid 
between them. A plant, apparently identical with the third, is 
now figured from a specimen in the possession of J. Dillwyn 
LlewelFyn, Esq., of Penllegare. In its pseudobulbs and leaves 
it is little different from C. Skinneri, and it has the same short 
inflorescence enclosed within a bivalve spathe; but the flowers 
are different, not half the size, with an acute, not blunt and 
emarginate lip, which is whole-coloured, not pallid over all the 
the lower half. The petals too are acute, not obtuse. In other 
respects, that is to say, in the smooth surface of the lip and in 
the column, no difference appears to exist. 

Is it probable that this is a wild hybrid, with the origin sus- 
pected by Mr. Skinner? We think not. It is true that it 
appears at first sight to be intermediate in the flowers, but there 

may 1st, 1856. 

is nothing of a middle nature in the pseudobulbs, and its inflo- 
rescence is exactly that of C. Skinneri, without any tendency to 
assume the long-drawn form of E. Skinneri. Moreover the lip, 
although acute like that organ in the last-mentioned species, is 
wholly destitute of the three lamellae which belong to it. To 
this may be added, that in the petals of the plant before us 
there is the same tendency to become lobed which occurs in 
Cattleya Skinneri. On the other hand the pollen-masses appear 
to be abortive, a circumstance remarked by Mr. Fitch as well as 

Although, for these reasons, we are unable at present to re- 
cognize in this instance the presence of a natural hybrid, we 
think it a plant the history of which requires further examina- 
tion. This is to be especially noted, that the origin of the plant 
which has now flowered, whether or not collected by Warsze- 
wicz, as is supposed, has nothing in common with the specimen 
discovered in 1854 or 1855 by Mr. Skinner. The two cases 
appear to be wholly independent of each other. Lindlei/. 

Fig. 1. Labellum, including the column. 2. Column. 3. Side-view of the 
labellum : — magnified. 


oojCs Imp' 

Tab. 4917. 

COFFEA Benghalensis. 

Bengal Coffee. 

Nat. Ord. Eubtace^:. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubas ovatus globosus turbinatusve, limbus parvus 4-5- 
dentatus. Corolla tubulosa, infundibuliformis, limbo patente 4-5-partito, lobis 
oblongis.1 'Stamina 4-5, e summo aut medio tubo exserta aut inclusa. Stylus 
apice bifidus, lobis rarius concretis. Bacca umbilicata, nuda aut coronata, fceta, 
coccis 2 membranaceo-pergamaceis 1-spermis. Semen extus convexum, intus 
planum, sulco Iongitudinali notatum. Embryo erectus in albumine corneo, radi- 
cnla tereti obtusa, cotyledonibus foliaceis. — Arbores aut frutices. Folia opposita. 
Stipulae interpetiolares. De Cand. 

Coffea Benghalensis ; fruticosa, foliis oblongo-ovatis acuminatis glabris, stipulis 
subulatis, fioribus axillaribus terminalibus sessilibus solitariis binis ternisve, 
calycis pilosi bibracteati limbo 4-fido lobis brevibus trifidis laciniis sub- 
clavatis, corolla hypocrateriforrai, limbi lobiso bovatis, antheris linearibus 
acutis dorso afRnis, stylo incluso, stigmatibus bipartitis. 

Coffea Bengbalensis. Roxb. Fl. Indie, v. 1. p. 540. Roem. et Schult. Syst. v. 
5. p. 200. De Cand. Prodr. v. 4. p. 499. Spreng. Syst. Nat. v. 1. p. 755. 
Wall. Cat. n. 6244. Wight et Am. Fl. Renins. Ind. Or. v. 1. p. 435. 

A native, according to Dr. Roxburgh, of the mountains of the 
north-eastern frontier of India, chiefly about Silhet, and from 
thence brought many years ago to Calcutta, where it was for 
some time much cultivated, under the idea of its being the real 
Coffee of Arabia. " It is now neglected, being of an inferior 
quality, and not productive ; however, the number and beauty 
of its flowers entitle it to a conspicuous place in the flower- 
garden/' — Wight and Arnott, by including it in their 'Flora of 
the Peninsula,' make it a native of that region, but they give 
no locality ; and they are disposed to consider C. Travancorci)- 
sis, Herb. Madr.,' and C. Wightiana as mere varieties. Indeed, 
though we have reason to believe ours to be the true plant of 
Roxburgh (it was sent to us from the Exotic Nurseries of 

may 1st, 185fi. 

Messrs. Veitch and Son, Exeter and Chelsea, who received it 
from Assam, through their collector Thomas Lobb), yet the 
leaves and flowers are twice as large as Roxburgh's drawing 
in the collection of the E. I. C. ; and the calyx in that drawing 
is represented as quite truncated and entire ; and even Wight 
and Arnott do not notice the very peculiar calyx-limb, each lobe 
being deeply divided into two, three, or more clavate or glan- 
dular segments, as described by Roxburgh, and by Wight and 
Arnott in the calyx of C. Wightiana, which latter however has 
quite diminutive leaves and flowers, as compared with our plant ; 
but it is not otherwise different. 

Descr. A small shrub, with glabrous dichotomous branches, 
and opposite, ovate, acuminate, entire, spreading, remote, almost 
sessile, submembranaceous leaves. Stipules subulate. Flowers 
solitary or in pairs at the extremity of the branches, large (in our 
plant), white. Bracteas two, at the base of each flower, subu- 
late. Calyx, with the tube turbinate, downy ; the limb short, of 
five laciniated lobes, with their segments clavated, unequal. Co- 
rolla hypocrateriform : the tube slender : the limb of five, obo- 
vate, spreading lobes. Anthers linear, sessile, attached by the 
back, a little below the acuminated apex, to the mouth of the 
corolla, the points only visible above the tube. Ovary fleshy, 
two-celled ; style included. Stigma large, bipartite. 

Fig. 1, 2. Sessile stamens. 3. Calyx and pistil. 4. Ovary cut through 
transversely : — magnified. 


Fitch del etlith 

Vmcerrt Brooks tap- 

Tab #>. 

Mr. Thwaitess Aristolochia. 

Nat. Ord. Aristolochiace^e. — Gynandria Hexandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4361.) 

Aristolochia Thwaitesii; erecta suffructicosa paululum basin versus ramosa, 
ramis velutino-villosis, foliis longe lanceolatis subcoriaceis glabris subtus 
sericeo-villosis, pedimculis subradicalibus, floribus racemosis oppositis peri- 
antbio bis arete geuiculato-flexuoso, limbo oblique truncato obscure 5-lobo 
intus copioso glanduloso-villoso lobis acutiusculis. 

Seeds of this very remarkable Aristolochia were received from 
our valued friend Mr. Thwaites, discovered by him in one of his 
excursions in the interior of Ceylon, and it flowered in the stove 
of the Royal Gardens early in March, 1856. It is the hand- 
somest of all the East Indian Aristolochia, and remarkable as 
well for the peculiar form of the perianth, as for the long narrow 
leaves. The flowers emit a fragrant smell, a good deal resembling 
that of Caladium (or Colocasia) odorum. It appears easy of culti- 
vation and flowered with us in March. 

Descr. From a tuberous caudex, or rhizome, several fleshy 
roots are emitted, and this caudex bears, above, a cluster of several 
erect, terete, downy stems, about a span high, simple or a little 
branched only at the base, leafy for their whole length. Leaves 
alternate, four to five inches long, spathulato-lanceolate, with a 
short sudden acumen, the margins quite entire, the base taper- 
ing into a short, terete petiole ; above glabrous, beneath downy 
or almost velvety. From the base of the stem, or rather from 
the top of the rhizome, the flower-stalks are clustered, erect, 
three inches long, bearing a raceme of fragrant flowers, of which, 
on each raceme, only one opens at a time ; opposite each flower 
or bud is a bract. The perianth is very curious in shape, beinu; 
a long tube contracted in the 'middle, and twice bent like a 

HNE 1st, 1856. 

swan's ueck, obscurely veined ; the pedicel is long, so that the 
flowers lie on the ground ■ the limb is obliquely truncate, but 
exhibiting five, angular, nearly equidistant teeth at the margin : 
the inside of the limb is yellowish, densely clothed with glandu- 
lar hairs, while the inside of the tube (or throat) is deep purple. 
Ovary inferior, tapering into the rather flexuose pedicel. Style 
very short, fleshy, deeply three-cleft : the anthers lodged (sessile) 
in pairs at the back of each lobe of the stigma. 

Fig. 1. Summit of the ovary, with the three-lobed antheriferous style: — 



Tab. 4919. 
ODONTOGLOSSUM hastilabium ; 


Halberd-lipped Odontoglossum : brown-petaled var. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4878.) 

Odontoglossum hastilabium; foliis oblongis coriaceis, paniculse ramis spicatis, 
bracteis cymbiformibus acuminatis ovario sequalibus, sepalis petalisque li- 
neari-lanceolatis acuminatis undulatis, labello apice subrotundo-ovato acuto 
basi auriculis acutis lanceolatis porrectis aucto, lamellis 5 elevatis, columnas 
pubescentis alis obsoletis undulatis. Lindl. 

Odontoglossum hastilabium. Lindl. in Orchid. Linden, p. 16. n. 51. Flor. 
Orchid. Nov. 1855, p. 5. n. 7. Oct. 1852, p. 18. «. 51. Hook. Bot. Mag. 
t. 4272. 

V&r.fuscatum, sepalis petalisque intus fuscis. 

Collected in Venezuela by Mr. Birschell. Living flowering 
specimens were sent to us in March, 1856, by Messrs. Jackson 
and Sons, Kingston Nursery. It proves to be a variety of the 
Odontoglossum figured by us at Tab. 4272, the 0. hastilabium 
of Dr. Lindley, with the sepals and petals of a uniform brown 
colour in the inside; instead of being green, with transverse 
brown lines. 

Desck. A large epiphytal plant. Pseudobulbs four to five 
inches tall, broad and compressed, furrowed, bearing two or more 
leaves at its extremity, which are linear-oblong, obtuse, subcori- 
aceous, not distinctly nerved in the recent plant, slightly keeled 
at the back. Peduncle, or scape, elongated, arising from the 
base of a pseudobulb, and within a leaf springing from the root, 
panicled above. Panicle large, branched, many-flowered : at the 
setting of the branches is a small convex bract. Sepals and pe- 
tals much spreading, nearly uniform (the petals however being a 
little shorter and broader, and crisped at the edge and more in- 
curved), lanceolate, acuminate, subfalcate, subconduphcate, choco- 
late-brown within, outside green; brown at the margin. Lip 

June 1st, 1856. 

three-lobed, unguiculate, side-lobes very small, ovate, intermedi- 
ate ones very broad arrow-shaped, white (the disc red), with the 
two side-wings falcate, the apex suddenly acuminate, the margin 
a little crisped ; on the disc are several long, sharp tubercles or 
fleshy projections. Column with two, broad, blunt wings, one 
on each side : anther-case hemispherical. 

Fig. 1. Column and lip. 2. Pollen-masses. 


"WErtjdh del etlith 

Vmcera Brooks Imp. 

Tab. 4920. 

PERNETTYA furens. 

Maddening Pernettya. 

Nat. Ord. Ericaceae. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus, persistens. Corolla globosa aut ovata, ore 5-dentato 
revoluto. Stamina 1 0, a corolla libera, mdus&, jilamentis supra basin subincrassatis, 
anthens bilobis, loculis apice apertis biaristatis (vel muticis). Ovarium depresso- 
globosum, glandulis 10 subtrilobis hypogynis basi cinctum. Stylus brevis. Stigma 
convexum, subquinquelobum. Bacca calyce suffulta, 5-locularis, loculis polysper- 
my. Semina minuta, oblongo-ovata. — Fruticuli Americani, ramosissimi, glabri aut 
in ramulis setosi, erecti aut procumbentes. Folia parva, approximata, persistentia, 
alterna, ovata, integra aut dentata. Flores axillares, plerumque solitarii, pedicellati, 
nutantes, albi. Pedunculi bracteolati. De Cand. 

Pernettya furens ; fruticosa, ramosa, ramulis pilosis, foliis brevi-petiolatis 
ovato-lanceolatis coriaceis mucronato-acutis serratis subtus pallidis reticu- 
latim venosis junioribus ciliatis, racemis axillaribus plurifloris, rachi paleaceo- 
setosa, corolla urceolato-subglobosa intus hirsuta. 

Pernettya furens. Klotzsch in Linncea, v. 24. p. 83. Walp. Ann. Bot. Sgst. 2. p. 

Arbutus ? furens. Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. Foy. p. 33. De Cand. Prodr. v. ?. 
p. 580. * * 

Arbutus ? punctata. Hook, et Am. 1. c. p. 33. Be Cand. Prodr. v. l.p. 583. 
Qued-qued. Feuill. Obs. 3. p. 36. t. 43. 

From the collection of Messrs. Stan dish and Noble, of the 
Bagshot Nursery, who raised it from Chilian seeds. Its blos- 
soms were in perfection in the open ground in the month of 
March, and it is consequently a great acquisition, with its bright 
foliage and close racemes of white waxy flowers, to our evergreen 
shrubs. It inhabits the neighbourhood of Conception, towards 
the southern parts of Chili, latitude 37° S. Father Feuillee was 
the first to detect and describe this plant, led to it perhaps by 
its properties : " the fruit," he says, " is a reddish-brown berry, 
which is dangerous when eaten, causing delirium ; whence the 
Indian name (Qued-qued), signifying madness." It is singular 
however that no other author seems to have been acquainted 
with the plant, except Dr. Arnott and myself, in the Botany of 

JUNE 1st, 1856. 

Beechey's Voyage, where indeed it is described twice over, the 
Arbutus ? punctata proving to be the same plant. Mr. Gay, in 
his * Flora Chilensis,' entirely omits it. Without a knowledge of 
the structure of the fruit I fear the genus of the plant must be 
considered still doubtful. It has the habit of Gaultlieria, but 
the calyx is not carnose. Dr. Klotzsch unhesitatingly places it in 
Pernettya; but it is at variance with his characters, for the cells 
of the anthers are muticous (not "biaristate"), and the flowers 
are racemose (not on " solitary peduncles"). 

Descr. A low shrub, moderately branched, younger branches 
green, and having older ones brown and glabrous. Leaves alter- 
nate, an inch and a half long, ovato-lanceolate, rarely subovate, 
acute and somewhat mucronate, the margins serrated, a little re- 
curved, ciliated when young, above penninerved, dark green, below 
paler and reticulately veined ; petiole very short, red. Bacemes 
almost sessile, solitary in the axils of several of the upper leaves, 
and about the same length as they, many-flowered ; rachis pa- 
leaceo-setose ; pedicels short, white, glabrous, curved downwards, 
bearing two or three small bracts at the base. Calyx white, of 
five, spreading, white, ovato-acuminated and deep lobes. Corolla 
white, urceolato-globose, waxy, the faux hairy ; the limb of five 
spreading rather obtuse lobes. Stamens ten ; filaments much di- 
lated at the base and downy there ; anthers ovate, forked at the 
apex, but not aristate, opening by a pore in each acuminated apex 
in front. Ovary globose or slightly depressed, surrounded at the 
base by a ten-toothed ring. Style shorter than the corolla, thick, 
columnar : stiyna truncated, scarcely lobed. 

Fig. 1. Young leaf seen from beneath : — natural size. 2. Portion of the 
rachis of a raceme with one flower. 3, 4. Front and back view of a stamen. 
5. Calyx and pistil (the corolla and stamens being removed). 6. Ovary and 
glandular ring : — magnified. 


Tab. 4921. 
MASDEVALLIA Wageneriana. 

Mr. Wageners Masdevallia. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium clausum ; sepalis acuminatis v. aristatis, in tubum 
campanulatum connatis. Petala nana. Labellum nanum, oblongum, concavum, 
integrum, cum columna articulatum. Columna erecta, linearis, canaliculata. 
Anthem hemisphaerica. Pollinia duo, caudicula brevi. — Herbae foliis Pleuro- 
thallidis, scapis unifioris. Lindl. 

Masdevallia Wageneriana; parva, csespitosa, sepalis apice longe cirrhiferis, 
petalis securiformibus apice bifidis, labello subrhombeo grosse dentato- 
serrato marginibus inferne integris reflexis, apice appendicula carnosa ungui- 

Masdevallia Wageneriana. Linden, Cat. 1855. Paxt. PI. Gard. v. 3. p. 74 
{with woodcut). 

A most lovely little plant, native of Central America, for the 
opportunity of figuring which we are indebted to Messrs. Rol- 
lison, of Tooting Nursery. To be seen to advantage however 
the flowers must be dissected and magnified, and then the curious 
form and beauty of the marking are very apparent. 

Descr. The little plants grow in a tufted manner, and send 
out fibrous roots from the base. Stem slender, filiform, sheathed 
with a few membranaceous scales, terminating in a solitary, spa- 
thulate, obtuse, coriaceous, erect leaf. Peduncles also arising 
direct from the roots, nearly as long as the leaf, slender, filiform, 
sheathed with scales, each bearing a solitary, nearly erect or but 
slightly inclined flower, yellow spotted with red, jointed below 
the ovary. The three sepals, broad, ovate, and each of them ter- 
minating in a long cirrhus or tendril-like appendage, are united 
into a three-lobed cup, tinged with red on the outside and deli- 
cately dotted with red within, spreading at the mouth. Within 
this, and much shorter than the sepals, are the two minute 
hatchet-shaped petals, one on each side, the column erect, bifid 
at the point. Lip also small, a little longer than the column, 

june 1st, 1856. 

and standing nearly parallel with it, rhomboid, substipitate, the 
margin reflexed below, then spreading into wing-like margins, 
which are deeply toothed and unguiculate, with a fleshy, recurved 
apex, like a bird's claw ; the whole is sprinkled with red-brown 
dots. Column short, thick, semiterete. Anther-case sunk into 
the clinandrium. Pollen-masses two, obovate, glandular at the 

Fig. 1. Side view, and 2, front view, of a flower. 3. Petals, column, and lip. 
4. # Lip removed from the flower. 5. Pollen-masses : — all magnified. 

49 ZZ 

"WJitdi M .et.lith 

Yincent Brools Imp 

Tab. 4922. 


Elegant Clavija. 

Nat. Ord. Myrsine^:. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx profunde quinquefidus, laciniis imbricatis, obtusis. Corolla 
hypogyna, tubo brevi, fauce in appendices carnosas, cum limbi quinquelobi laci- 
niis obtusis, sestivatione imbricatis sub anthesi patentibus alternas tumente. Sta- 
mina 5, imo corollse tubo inserta, ejusque lobis opposita, faucem vix superantia ; 
jilamenta in tubum connata ; antherce extrorsse, biloculares, trigonse, in capitulum 
decemradiatum conniventes, longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Ovarium uniloculare, 
placenta basilari parva. Ovula pauca, adscendentim amphitropa. Stylus bre- 
vissimus ; stigma abbreviato-bilobum. Bacca globosa, unilocularis. Semina 
pauca, placentae basilari globosae libera? inserta, umbilico prope basim ventrali, 
testa mucilaginosa. Embryo intra albumen corneum excentricus; cotyledonibus 
ovatis, planis, radicula infera. — Frutices America tropica; caule simplici, apice 
frondoso; foliis alternis oblongis, coriaceis, integerrimis v. spinoso-dentatis ; racemis 
axillaribus, simplicissimis, strictis ; folio brevioribus, bracteis minutissimis ; floribus 
nutantibus, abortu seepe unisexualibus, albis vel aurantiacis. Endl. 

Clavija omata ; foliis subverticillatis elongato-oblongis acutis basi longe an- 
gustatis coriaceis spinoso-dentatis, racemis folio triplo quadruplove brevi- 
oribus, bracteis subulatis pedicello triplo brevioribus. DC. 

Clavija omata. D. Don, Edinb. Phil. Journ. Jan. 1831. p. 236, et in Bot. 

Reg. t. 1764. De Cand. Prodr. v. 8. p. 147. 
Theophrasta longifolia. Jacq. Coll. v. 4. p. 136. Hort. Schcenbr. v. 1. t. 116. 

This is really a noble stove-plant, rising with a clear, tree-like 
stem to a height of ten or twelve feet, and bearing a crown of 
leaves at the extremity of very large size, together with racemes 
of bright orange-coloured flowers from the axils of the leaves 
and from the scars of the fallen leaves or the bare trunk : these 
racemes are spreading or drooping. The plant inhabits New 
Granada, and seeds were sent thence to our garden from that 
country by Mr. Purdie, which have now become fine plants. 

Descr. Stem erect, unbranched, or branched only at the top, 
tree-like, marked with the scars of the numerous fallen leaves, the 
foliage being confined to the summit of the stem, where the crown 

june 1st, 1856. 

cannot be less than five feet across. Leaves alternate, one and 
a half to two and a half feet long, coriaceous, obovato-lanceolate, 
acuminate, many and coarsely, almost spinosely, serrated at the 
margin, strongly penniveined, the base tapering gradually into a 
very short petiole. Racemes five or six inches long, solitary or 
two or three together; from the axil of a leaf or from what corre- 
sponds with it on the old wood at various points below the leaves, 
spreading or drooping. Flowers numerous, bright orange. Pe- 
duncle short, and with the rachis and pedicels yellow. Calyx 
yellow, of five imbricating lobes. Corolla subrotate, fleshy, with 
five spreading, rounded, denticulated lobes, with five large fleshy 
glands at the mouth, which close the faux of the corolla. Sta- 
mens arising from beneath these glands : the filaments united 
into a tube bearing the extrorse anthers, each of two cells, at the 
top. Ovary small, with a short style, abortive. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Section of the tubular portion of the corolla, showing the 
glands, stamens, and ovary : — magnified. 


W Fitch, de! Mirth. 


Tab. 4923. 
ODONTOGLOSSUM membranaceum. 

Membrane-sh ea thed Odon toglossum . 

Nat. Ord. ORCHIDEyE. — Gynandeia Monandria. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4878.) 

Odontoglossum membranaceum; pseudobulbis ovatis angulatis, foliis solitary's 
oblongis in petiolum canaliculatum angustatis, scapo 2-4-floro, bracteis va- 
ginisque membranaceis acutissimis equitantibus, sepalis membranaceis un- 
guiculatis lanceolatis, petalis latioribus oblongis obtusis, labello cordato ob- 
tusissimo unguiculato, uugue carnoso cyathiforrai pubescente antice biden- 
tato medio tuberculato, process ubus 2 ante cyathum elongatis pubescenti- 
bus, columnar pubesceutis auriculis rotundatis. Lindl. 

Odontoglossum membranaceum. Sert. Orchid, sub t. 25. Bot. Reg. 1845, 
Misc. 60. 10. Bot. Reg. 1846, t. 34. 

A very fragrant Mexican Odontoglossum, and Dr. Lindley justly 
observes that this and Odontoglossum Cervantesii may be re- 
garded as among the finest species of the country. He remarks 
also the great similarity of the two species, and that they may 
be possibly varieties of each other. I think our plant here 
figured will confirm that view; it partakes of the character of 
both without being identical with either : it has the pure white 
colour and larger flowers, and the shorter teeth on the labellum 
of 0. membranaceum ; but it wants the spots of the base of the 
lip, the rounded apex, and has the larger tubercle at the unguis 
of the lip : in these respects agreeing with 0. Cervantesii. The 
species flowers in the stove of the Royal Gardens in April. Both 
kinds, we believe, are natives of the vicinity of Oaxaca. 

Descr. Pseudobulbs small, about as big as a pigeon's egg, 
clustered, ovate, rather compressed, and slightly keeled on two 
opposite sides; partially clothed with large membranaceous 
scales, as long as or longer than the pseudobulb. Leaf soli- 
tary, terminal on the bulb, oblong, acute, pergamineous, faintly 
striated. Scape radical, from within a scale at the base of the 

JUNE 1st, 1856. 

bulb, a span high, bearing many rather large, sheathing scales, 
and similar ones on bracts are seen at the base of each of the 
three or four flowers. Pedicels long. Sepals and petals pure 
cream-white, with transverse red spots or lines at their base : 
the former oval-oblong, the latter broader, ovato-rotundate, all 
acute. Lip large, white, with a yellow claw, three-lobed : the 
base or claw thick and fleshy, bearing a lobe on each side 
streaked with red, with a tubercle on the disc and a bifid tu- 
bercle in front : the terminal lobe very large, broadly cordate, 
obscurely veined, waved and a little crenate at the margin, the 
point acute or a little reflexed. Column rather large, terete, 
with a spreading, oblong wing standing out on each side, a 
little below the apex. Anther -case hemispherical or helmet- 
shaped, acute. Pollen-masses two, obovate, yellow, attached 
to a flattened stalk, and that to an oblong gland. 

Fig. 1. Lip. 2. Column and anther. 3. Pollen-masses: — magnified. 


Tab. 4924. 

Br. Falconer s Rhododendron. 

Nat. Ord. Ericaceae. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron Falconeri; arbor, foliis amplis coriaceis oblongo-ellipticis ob- 
ovatisve obtusis v. obscure inucronatis supra glabris nitidis impresse reticu- 
latim venosis subtus dense ferrugineo-tomentosis, florum capitulis densis, 
calyce obsoleto, corollis campanulatis (albis, basi hinc macula purpurea) 
8-lobatis, stantibus 13-16, stylo apice incrassato, stigmate magno orbicu- 
lari umblicato, capsula elliptico-cylindracea velutina. 

Rhododendron Falconeri. Hook.fil. Rliod. Sik. Bimal.p. 11. tab. x., in Journ. 
Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 7. p. 76. 

Rhododendron venosum. Nutt. in Hook. Kew Gard. Misc. v. 5. p. 364. 

The spring of the present year has been eminently favourable 
to the production of blossoms on the Himalayan Rhododendrons 
(in general however not without protection), and our present 
and succeeding numbers will give proof of this statement. R. 
Falconeri has flowered this season for the first time in Europe ; 
and in two places, — with Messrs. Standish and Noble, who obli- 
gingly sent the plant to us to be here figured, from an open 
frame at Bagshot, without glass, only covered by a mat at night ; 
and with Mr. Fairie, of Mosely Hill, near Liverpool. 

It is one of three noble species of Sikkim (R. argenleum, 
Hook. fil. and R. Hodgsoni, Hook, fil., being the second and 
third), which belong to a group or division thus characterized by 
Dr. Hooker •. " Calyx 0. Corolla broadly bell-shaped, ten-lobed. 
Stamens eighteen or twenty (rarely ten). Ovary usually hairy 
or viscid or both, many-celled. — Trees with large leaves, and 
white or pale-coloured, densely clustered flowers. R. Falco- 
neri, even independent of its flowers, is a very striking plant, 
from the size and beauty of the foliage, which its discoverer 

July 1st, 1856. 

compares to those of the rusty-leaved variety of Magnolia gran- 
dijlora, but the green is of a much deeper hue. It inhabits the 
summit of Tonglo Mountain, Eastern or Sikkim-Himalaya, at 
an elevation of 10,000 feet above the level of the sea; and, as 
may be expected, we have found it stand the winter in the open 
air ; but in a climate subject to dry, piercing, east winds at the 
flowering season, it is in vain to expect blossoms ; and even the 
young branching shoots are liable to be killed, unless some kind 
of protection be afforded at the season of blossoming. Mr. Booth 
sent the same species to Mr. Nuttall, from Bootan, and he has 
called it R. venosum. 

Descr. Our plants have at present only attained a height of 
three to four feet ; but on their native mountains they are trees 
thirty feet in height, with trunks often two feet in diameter, and 
branching from the base. Young branches thick and downy, 
bearing the spreading foliage at the extremity, and glutinous, 
woolly leaf-buds enveloped in imbricated scales. The young leaves 
are all over woolly with ferruginous down : the fully formed ones 
are eight to ten inches, and even a foot in length, coriaceous, 
thick, elliptical or obovate, obtuse at the base and at the apex, 
but with the latter submucronate ; the upper surface naked, 
dark, glossy green, penninerved, and reticulatedly veined (the 
veins sunk), beneath prominently veined and densely clothed 
with more or less bright rusty-coloured down, the down often 
deciduous on the veins. Petioles not more than an inch long, 
but very thick and slightly transversely wrinkled, glabrous. 
Flowers collected into a large head, numerous, white, and with 
a dark purple or chocolate-coloured spot at the superior base 
within, conspicuous also externally. Calyx obsolete, of five 
minute lobes, quite concealed by the base of the corolla. Co- 
rolla campanulate, large (three or four times as large as those 
in the figure above quoted, but like them in other respects), 
eight- or ten-lobed at the moderately spreading limb; lobes 
rounded, obtuse. Stamens twelve or sixteen, shorter than the 
corolla, declined: jilaments subulate, woolly below: anthers 
small, brown. Ovary pyramidal, very woolly and glutinous, 
sixteen-celled, with as many small glands on the outside at 
the base : style geniculatecV above the middle, thence thickened 
upwards. Stigma very large, nearly orbicular, umbilicated. Cap- 
side elliptical, cylindrical, downy. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Flower: — nat. size. 3. Pistil and indistinct calyx. 4. 
Transverse section of ovary : — nat. size. 5. Fruit : — nat. size. 


"WBtA . 

Bro±s Imp 

Tab. 4925. 
pteris heterophylla. 

Variable-leaved Pteris. 

Nat. Ord. Filices. — Cryptogamia Filices. 

Gen. Char. Sorus marginalis, linearis, continuus. Indusium marginarium, sca- 
riosum, angustum. — Khizoraa subglobosum. Frondes fasciculate, coriacee aut 
herbacece, lobate, sepissime pinnatim divise. Venae pinnate, crebre, simplices, 
sepius uni-bifurcate, tenues, venulisque apice obtuso libero terminate, interne aut 
elevatiuscule, venulis parallelis rarissime diver gentibus. Presl. 

Pteris heterophylla ; frondibus (vix pedalibus) ovatis bi- subtri-pinnatis apice 
simpliciter pinnatis, pinnis pinnulisque oppositis, sterilium pinnulis subob- 
ovatis basi insequaliter cuneato-attenuatis profunde serratis, fertilium pin- 
nulis oblongis apice grosse-dentatis, rachibus anguste alatis, soris oppositis. 

Pteris heterophylla. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1534. Sw. Syn. Til. p. 101. Willd. Sp. 
PI. v. 394. Spreng. Syst. Feget. v. 4. p. 76. Fee, Gen. Fit. p. 125 et 
126. Agardh, Sp. et Gen. Pterid. p. 15. 

Adiantum hexagonum. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1560. 

Adiantum foliis hexagonis. Plum. Fit. p. 84. t. 37. 

Adiantum pinnis hexagonis furcatis. Petiv. Fil. v. 94. t. 10./. 2 (fide Willd.). 

Kuta muraria major, etc. Sloan. Jam. Hist. v. 1. p. 92. t. 53./. 2. 

From the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it was lately received, 
through Mr. "Wilson, from Jamaica, gathered in moist woods, 
Westmoreland County. Sloane gives the Orange River and Rio 
d'Oro, in the middle of the island, as the locality : we possess 
specimens also from Dr. Macfadyen ; but it does not appear to 
be an abundant species, or it is much overlooked by collectors. 
Plumier gives only one station for it in St. Domingo, viz. " un 
cndroit que les Boucaniers de lisle appellent lefond epineux, en 
venant des Anses a Pitre au quartier de Leogane." I have also 
a solitary specimen gathered near Rio Janeiro by the late Lady 
Calcott. Mr. J. Smith possesses a specimen, gathered by Linden 
in the island of Cuba. It is a very distinct and well-marked 
species, reminding one in the size and composition of the frond, 
in the larger and longer fertile fronds, and in the contracted 

july 1st, 1856. 

fertile pinnules with the opposite parallel sori, of Cryptogramma 
crispa. I possess a somewhat allied and I believe new species 
of this from Tweedie, South Brazil, with the copious fertile pin- 
nules, as narrow as, and a good deal resembling, an Onychium. 

Descr. The root consists of fibres springing from a very short, 
knotted, woody caudex. Fronds tufted, ovate, bipinnate or, 
in the more luxuriant specimens, subtripinnate, submembrana- 
ceous, glabrous; pinna and pinnules opposite or mostly so. 
Sterile fronds (including the naked, slender stipes) scarcely a 
span high. Pinnules somewhat ovate or more frequently ob- 
ovate, coarsely and acutely serrated, tapering below into an 
oblique, cuneate base: veinlets terminating below each serra- 
ture, and clavate. Fertile fronds taller than the barren, 
sometimes a foot high : their pinnules oblong or almost linear- 
oblong, their sides nearly parallel and occupied by the opposite 
sori, and their rather narrow involucres, of which the sporangia 
almost meet at the costa ; the apex alone coarsely incised, with 
a few (one to three) erect teeth. Under a magnifying power a 
few minute hairs may be seen at the base of the under side of the 
fertile pinnules, and the rachises are everywhere slightly winged 
or margined. 

Fig. 1. Fertile pinnule. 2. Sterile pinnule : — magnified. 


Tab. 4926. 

Br. Hooker 8 Rhododendron. 

Nat. Ord. EricEjE. — Decandria Monogynia, 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron Hookeri; fruticosum erectum, foliis coriaceis glaberrimis rigi- 
dis oblongo-ovalibus obtusis longe petiolatis basi rotundatis subtus glauces- 
centibus pinnatim nervosis, nervis furfuraceo-pubescentibus, corymbis mul- 
tifloris, calyce amplo campanulato obsolete et inaequaliter lobato, corolla 
carapanulata lobis emarginatis, staminibus # 10, capsula cylindraceo-ovata 
glabra 7-8-loculari, seminibus lanceolatis marginatis apice laceratis. Nutt. 

Rhododendron Hookeri. Nutt. in Hook. Kew Gard. Misc. v. 5. p. 359. 

From the garden of Mr. Eairie, of Mosely Hall, near Liver- 
pool, where it flowered in April, 1856. It is one of the many 
new Rhododendrons which rewarded Mr. Booth's researches in 
Bootan, and which have been so successfully reared from seed 
by the veteran botanist Nuttall, at Nuttgrove, Rainhill, near 
Prescott. It is really a handsome and brilliant species, forming, 
along with R. eximium, Nutt., " the entire thickets upon the Oola 
Mountain of Bootan, on the north slopes of the Lablung Pass, 
accompanied by Pinus excelsa ; elevation above the sea-level 
8000 to 9000 feet, the frost and snow at that time, about the 
20th December, being very severe and continuous." Mr. Nuttall 
observes it is allied to R. Thomsoni, but differs in the leaves 
and other characters, as well as in the more numerously-flowered 

Descr. " A tall, erect shrub, twelve to fourteen feet high (on 
its native mountains), with a trunk three to four inches in 
diameter. Branches covered with a whitish-yellow, polished bark. 
Flower-buds large, the scales dilated and retuse, externally appear- 
ing as if varnished, internally silky. Leaves smooth, very thick 
and coriaceous, apiculate, oblong or oblong-oval, obtuse at both 
extremities, beneath glaucous, elegantly and curiously pinnatedly 
nerved, the nerves or vessels in right lines marked at regular 
row 1st, 1856. 

distances by globular tufts of white chaffy scales, which when 
abraded leave behind brown fibrous scars, resembling the bases 
of the sori in Ferns, both in texture and colour. Leaf-bud scales, 
in growing plants, linear-oblong, much elongated, and often of a 
brilliant scarlet. Leaves three to five and a half inches long, 
and from one to one and a half inch wide ; during winter very 
much curled back, so that the edges nearly meet the midrib. 
Petioles thick and stout, about an inch in length. The flowers 
as large as those of R. Thomsoni ; the lobes five, deeply bilobed. 
Stamens ten, smooth : the anthers with oblique pores. Corymb 
ten- to fifteen-flowered, the peduncles reflected. Calyx very large, 
campanulate, coloured, unequally and irregularly five-lobed, the 
two back lobes the largest, all of them shallow. Capsule about 
an inch long, seven- to eight-celled, two-thirds covered by the 
persistent coriaceous calyx, light brown, cylindric-ovate, the cells 
acute, placental, dissepiments very thick and rounded. Seed 
lanceolate, light brown, with a margin chiefly on one side, and 
the summit torn into several threads." Nutt. 

Fig. 1. Portion of a leaf, with villous scale. 2. Scale removed from a leaf. 
3. Stamens. 4. Calyx and pistil. 5. Transverse section of ovary : — magnified. 

Tab. 4927. 

Vernal Collinsia. 

Nat. Ord. ScrophularinejE. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx profunde 5-fidus, campanulatus. Corollce declinatse, tubus 
postice basi gibbus, limbi labium superius bifidum lobis erecto-repbcatis, inferius 
lobo medio complicato genitalia includente, lateralibus patentibus. Stamina de- 
clinata, antherarum loculis apice confluentibus, staminis quinti rudimentum breve. 
Stylus apice minute subcapitato-stigmatosus. Capsula ovata vel globosa, septi- 
cide bivalvis, valvulis membranaceis bifidis. Semina ovoidea, majuscula, dorso 
convexa, facie concava, testa laeviuscula. — Herbae annua, Boreali- Americana, 
erectee, decumbentes vel laxe ramoste. Folia opposita, rarius ternatim verticillata. 
Flores in axillis foliorum floralium oppositorum /also verticillati, cymarum nempe 
pedunculus communis subnullus, pedicelli uniflori ebracteolati elongati vel rarius 
brevissimi, singuli bractea parva vel foliacea suffulti. Corolla carulea, violacea 
vel subrosea ; labio superiore pallido vel alio. Benth. in Be Cand. Prodr. 

Collinsia verna; glabra vel superne subpuberula, foliis infimis cordato-orbicu- 
laribus sublonge petiolatis, caulinis ovatis sessilibus crenato-serratis, su- 
premis bracteaeformibus quaternatim verticillatis linearibus, pedicellis folio 
longioribus, calycis laciniis lato-lanceolatis ciliatis, corolla? labio superiore 
albo profunde bifido lobis divergentibus inferiore casruleo. 

Collinsia verna. Nutt. in Journ. Acad. Philad. v. I. p. 190./. 1. Gen. of N. 
Am. Plants, v. 2. p. 46. Benth. in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 10. p. 318 (excl. 
Syn. of Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. v. 3. t. 220). Gray, Bot. of N. U. States, 
p. 297. 

Antirrhinum tenellum. Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. v. %.p. 421. 

This lovely annual is quite new to our gardens,* and is no 
less interesting from the beauty of its flowers (the upper lip pure 
white, the lower a rich azure-blue) than from its being the spe- 
cies on which the excellent Nuttall founded the genus : and it 
is from Mr. Nuttall himself that we received the plants from 
which our drawing is made, accompanied by the following note : 
— " I send you young plants of Collinsia verna. This, like the 
rest of the genus, is an annual, but of singular beauty, and has 

* The Collinsia verna of Don, in Sweet's 'Flower Garden,' vol. iii. tab. 220, 
is clearly the C. grandyflora, Lindl. (Bot. Beg. t. 1107), from Oregon. 
July 1st, 1856. 

always with me been a favourite, as it is the first genus I ever at- 
tempted to describe, and dedicated to an old friend and accurate 
botanist, Zaccheus Collins, Esq., of Philadelphia, long since dead. 
I found it in my first journey into the western interior of Ame- 
rica (1812), growing in rich and rather shady alluvial lands 
betwixt Franklin and Erie, in West Pennsylvania, which appears 
to be near upon its eastern limit. Prom my friend Professor 
Short I have it from near Lexington, Kentucky ; it is also com- 
mon in Missouri, but ceases long before arriving at the Rocky 
Mountains, at the sources of the Platte, where the climate be- 
comes too dry for it. The seeds I received by post from Dr. 
Short were collected in his garden on the 1st of June, last year, 
1855 ; on the 25th of June I had some of them already planted, 
but none came up until the month of August, and those unfor- 
tunately were all but one devoured by snails. I planted more 
seeds in September, and from those have arisen, with a good many 
others, the plants I send. I put them out-of-doors in pots de- 
fended by open wide-necked glass shades, in which way they do 
better than in a frame or greenhouse. The winter or autumnal 
young plants endure the severe winters in Kentucky perfectly 
well, and there begin to flower about the 1st of April." 

Our plants flowered in a cool frame early in April and con- 
tinued blooming for a long time. Treated as a hardy annual it 
will prove, when sufficiently abundant, a charming bedding- 
out species. 

Descr. Annual. Our native specimens in the Herbarium 
are generally small and straggling. Cultivation improves the 
plant exceedingly ; it then grows more erect, stouter, is from a 
span to a foot high, and bears a succession of flowers, like the 
Pentstemons. Stem opposite, terete ; branches glabrous, the ex- 
tremities only being a little downy. Leaves glabrous : radical 
ones, between cordate and orbicular, on long petioles ; cauline 
ones sessile, ovate, crenato-dentate, rather obtuse ; supreme leaves 
or bracteas in whorls of four, linear and entire. Pedicels solitary 
and axillary from the leaves, sometimes from the lowest pair 
of cauline or sessile leaves. Calyx two-lipped, of five, deep, 
broad-lanceolate, acute, ciliated segments. Corolla large in 
proportion to the plant : upper lip snowy- white, bipartite : the 
lobes rather diverging, retuse : lower lip bright azure-blue, with 
white rays ■. middle lobe obsolete, forming a plica, which receives 
the stamens and style : side lobes conspicuous, emarginate. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil -.—magnified. 



v • 

Tab. 4928. 

RHODODENDRON campanulatum 
var. Wallichii. 

Bell-flowered Rhododendron ; Br. Walliclis var. 

Nat. Ord. EricejE. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron campanulatum; frutex dense ramosus, ramulis foliis subtus 
petiohsque magis minusve ferrugineo-tomentosis, foliis brevissirae petiolatis 
ellipticis obovatisve acutis coriaceis basi cordatis supra glaberrimis intense 
vmdibus flonbus 6-10 laxe capitatis pallide roseis, pedunculis elongatis, 
calyce obsoleto 5-lobo, corollis lato-campanulatis, staminibus 10, ovariis 

Rhododendron campanulatum. Bon, in Wern. Tram. v. 3.^.410. Sw. Brit II 
(*ard. 2. p. 241. Wall. Cat. n. 756. Be Cand. Prodr. v. l.p. 721. Lodd 
Bot. Cab. t. 1944. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 359. Hook. Fil. inJourn, of Hort. 
Soc. Lond. v. l.p. 78. 

P, roliis subtus pilis articulatis ferrugineis sparsim tomentosis v. subglabris, 

corollis immaculatis. (Tab. Nostr. 4928.) 
Rhododendron Wallichii. Rook. Fil. Rhx>d. Sik. Him. t. 64. t. 5. 

Native of the interior of Sikkim-Himalaya. When Dr. Hooker 
prepared his description on its native mountain he considered 
this to be a new species, which he named after our lamented 
inend Dr. Wallich, not being then aware of the sportive nature 
of Rhododendron campanulatum, of which he afterwards, and no 
doubt justly, considered it to be a mere variety, with the rusty 
down of the foliage nearly obsolete; and as such we represent 
it here, from plants raised at Kew from Himalayan seeds, and 
which blossomed in May, 1856. 

In this variety the petioles of the leaves are deeply tinged with 
red, and the scales of the leaf-bud are also red, — characters 
July 1st, 1856. 

which add in no slight degree to the beauty of the plant. These 
differences pointed out, we may refer to our representation and 
description of the normal features of the species at Tab. 3759 
of this Magazine. We here add some dissections which are 
wanting in that figure. 

Fig. 1. Portion of the under side of a leaf. 2. Branched pubescence of the 
same. 3. Stamen. 4. Calyx and pistil. 5. Transverse section of the ovary: 
— magnified. 


Tab. 4929. 

CALCEOLARIA violacea. 

Pale-purple Calceolaria. 

Nat. Ord. Scrophulariace^. — Diandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx basi ovario brevissime subadhserens, 4-partitus, laciniis fes- 
tivatione valvatis. Corolla subperigyna, tubus subnullus, limbus concavus, bilo- 
bus, lobis integris, concavis v. calceiformibus, superiore minore inferiorem vulgo 
inflatum sestivatione ad margines angustissime obtegente. Stamina 2, lateralia, 
prope basin corollas inserta, addito rarissime tertio postico, deficientium rudi- 
menta nulla ; antherm biloculares vel dimidiata:. Stylus simplex, apice non in- 
crassatus, minute stigmatosus. Ovarium disco tenui calyci adnato impositum. 
Capsula ovato-conica, septicide debiscens, valvulis bifidis, marginibus inflexis co- 
lumnam placentiferam nudantibus. Semina plurima, saepius numerosa, striata — 
Herbse, sufFrutices vel frutices, Austro-Arnericani et Novo-Zelandici. Folia opposita 
aut vertieillata, rarissime alterna. Pedunculi axillares terminalesve, cymoso-multijlori 
vel rarius uniflori. Corolla? jlavce, alba vel purpurascentes. BentJi. in Be Cand. 

Calceolaria (§ Jovellana) violacea; fruticosa ramosissima minute yiscidulo- 
pubescens, foliis petiolatis ovatis acutis grosse inciso-dentatis basi cuneatis 
supra bispidulis, corolla? labiis concavis alte connatis, superiore calyce sub- 
triplo longiore inferiore vix longiore, apice brevissime involuto. Benth. 

Calceolaria violacea. Cav. Ic. v. 5. p. 31. t. 452. Benth. in Be Cand. Prodr. 
v. 10. p. 206. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 46. 

BiEA violacea. Pers. Syn. PI. v. 1. p. 15. 

The present is one of a singular group of Calceolaria, distin- 
guished as a genus by Cavanilles (at least in part) under the 
name of Jovellana,— Baa of Persoon. The corollas have the 
two lips nearly equal, and more or less open ; and the anther- 
cells are adnate. These are however, by general consent, placed 
in Calceolaria, under a section called " Jovellana ." Our present 
species is a native of Valparaiso and Conception, m Chili and 
has now been some time introduced to European gardens, where 
it forms a very pretty greenhouse plant, flowering copiously m 
May and June. Calceolaria Sinclairii, of New Zealand, is one 
of this Jovellana group. . 

Descr. SufFruticose. Stem erect, one to two feet and more 
high, glabrous or slightly pubescent, much branched. Branches 

AUGUST 1st, 1856. 

terete, opposite. Leaves numerous, small, opposite, ovate or be- 
tween ovate and cordate, petiolate, lobato-pinnatifid, the lobes 
acute, inciso-dentate, rather dark green, and with scattered hairs 
above, pale beneath. Petiole shorter than the leaf, channelled 
above. Corymbs terminating the upper branches, and handsome 
from their number rather than any brilliancy of colour. Pedicels 
hairy. Calyx hairy and ciliate, nearly equally quadripartite ; lobes 
ovate, rather acute, spreading. Corolla moderately large, sub- 
rotund, but depressed, deeply two-lipped, pale yellowish salmon- 
colour, spotted with purple without and more distinctly within : 
lips nearly equal, half-open, upper one nearly plane, lower one 
slightly concave, hairy and ciliated at the margin and at the very 
base within, where the hairs are very long and bristle-like. Sta- 
mens two : filaments very short ; anthers two, erect and adnate 
(not divaricate). Ovary subglobose, or rather hemispherical, 
downy. Style filiform. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Lower half of the corolla with stamens :- 

Tab. 4930. 
RHODODENDRON Blandfordi^florum. 

Blandfordia-flowered Rhododendron. 

Nat. Ord. EriceyE. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. CJiar. {Fide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron Blandfordi<eflorum ; frutex ramulosus, ramulis gracilibus vir- 
gatis lepidotis, foliis lanceolatis acuminatis coriaceis breve petiolatis subtua 
ferrugiueo-lepidotis, capitulis 5-10-floris, floribus pendulis breve pedicel- 
latis, corolla; carnosa? infundibuliformis tubo elongato cylindraceo lobis ob- 
longis obtusis acutisve. 

The subject of our present plate is another of Dr. Hooker's 
discoveries in the Himalaya Mountains of Eastern Nepal and 
Sikkim, where it is not uncommon at elevations of 10,000 to 
12,000 feet, both in valleys and on the mountain-tops and 
ridges. It forms a slender, rather ugly, sparingly leafy, twiggy 
bush, with often very ornamental flowers, which are extremely 
variable and even wholly dissimilar in colour, and often in form. 
A comparison of Plate VIII. of Dr. Hooker's ' Sikkim Rhodo- 
dendrons' and of our Plate 4788 with that now figured, would 
never suggest the probability of the plants there delineated being 
nearly related, nor were we at all inclined to regard them as such 
until these and other varieties — all flowering about the same time 
both in the Royal Gardens and Pleasure-grounds at Kew, in the 
Horticultural Society's Gardens, and elsewhere — showed so many 
clearly marked transition states, that we have no alternative but 
to regard them as very closely allied plants. An examination 
of Dr. Hooker's extensive suites of dried specimens further con- 
firms this opinion ; and amongst his unpublished drawings, made 
from the wild plants in Sikkim, is another form or species with 
longer, more slender flowers, much more deeply coloured than 
any which we have seen in cultivation. How far these forms 
may prove permanent in this country remains to be seen, but 

AKiUST 1st, 1856. 

no one who has cultivated the Himalayan Rhododendrons on 
a large scale can fail to be struck with the numerous sports 
which have already started off from B. ciliatum, Dalhousia, cam- 
panulatum, and arboreum, and which will no doubt soon be ac- 
counted as species by nurserymen. 

The more important points besides habit in which B. Bland- 
fordicejlorum varies are the form of the calyx-lobes, Avhich, as in 
B. cinnabarinum, are always minute teeth, but of which teeth 
the upper is sometimes elongate and subulate ; the size, form, 
and colour of the corolla — which varies from one to two and a 
half inches long, with blunt or acute lobes, and from a pale, 
sickly green colour to a vivid orange-red — being often green 
below and red above. The characters of the stamens, pistil, and 
fruit seem very constant in all the forms. 

Descr. A slender shrub, attaining eight feet in height, resem- 
bling R. cinnabarinum in habit, and, like it, considered poison- 
ous to goats and sheep in the Himalaya, and the smoke of 
whose wood, when used for fuel in a tent, causes swelling of the 
face and inflammation of the eyes. Leaves two to three inches 
long, coriaceous in luxuriant plants. Mowers two and a half 
inches long, often green before expansion, and afterwards bear- 
ing more or less of a cinnabar or brick-red or orange-red on 
the upper part of the tube and limb, sometimes altogether green, 
at others being red, even in the bud. Stamens ten. Ovary five- 

Pig. 1. Portion of under surface of leaf. 2. Scale from ditto. 3. Stamen. 
4. Pistil. 5. Transverse section of ovary. 

Tab. 4931. 
ribes subvestitum. 

Glandular Californian Gooseberry. 

Nat. Ord. Ghossularie^:. — Pentandkia Digynia. 

Gen. CJiar. Calyx 5-lobus, laciniis plus minus coloratis. Petala 5, parva, 
albida, lutea vel rubra. Stamina 5, rarissime 6, filamentis liberis. Styli 1-2 et 
3-4-fidi. Bacca unilocularis, receptaculis lateralibus. Semina arillata (an in 
omnibus ?), oblonga, subcompressa. 

Kibes (§ Grossularia) subvestitum; glanduloso-pubescens, ramis rigidis, foliis 
cordatis tri-quinquelobis crenato-dentatis supra glabris subtus subpilosis, 
spinis stipularibus 3-4 subulatis mediocribus, petioKs glanduloso-hirsutis, 
peduncidis 1-3-floris pilosis (pilis glandulosis) bibractcatis, bracteis glandu- 
loso-marginatis, calycis tubo ovarium glandulosnm superantc laciniis hirsu- 
tis oblongis reflexis, staminibus petala duplo superantibus glabris. 

Ribes subvestitum. Hook, et Am. Bot. of Beech. Yoy. p. 346. Walpers, Re- 
pert. Bot. Syst. v. 2. p. 357. 

A native of California, where it was first detected by the 
naturalists of Captain (now Admiral) Beechey's surveying voy- 
age ; and it has since been sent by Mr. Lobb to Messrs. Veitcli 
and Son, Exotic Nurseries, Exeter and Chelsea, where it bears 
its flowers in the open ground in April and May, and is rather 
a striking plant, from the size of the flowers and deep purple- 
coloured calyx, with pale, erect petals, and the inserted stamens, 
which give a Fuchsia-like character to their flowers. 

Descr. A shrub, with harsh, rigid branches, and these beset 
with stipulary spines, three or four growing together and spread- 
ing, subulate, of moderate length. Leaves small, cordate, thrce- 
to five-lobed, the lobes crenate, glabrous above, downy beneath, 
sometimes glandular. Petioles hairy, the hairs mixed with pe- 
dicellated (/lands. Peduncles bearing two or three drooping 
flowers; pedicels clothed with stalked (/lands, and bearing two 
opposite, oval, concave bracts, which arc glandular at the mar- 
gin. Inferior ovary, with copious glands. Tube of the eafyx 
vi gust 1st, 1856. 

longer than the ovary, scarcely glandular: limb of live, long, 
reilexed, dark purple segments, which are oblong and marked 
with lines of hair3. Petals erect, broadly cuneate, almost white, 
the sides involute. Stamens, with the filaments, almost twice as 
long as the petals, erect : anthers oval-oblong, glandular at the 
back. Style as long as the petals, bifid. 

Fig. 1. Flower laid open. 2. Petal. 3. Anther, seen from behind: — magnified. 

' t 93Z 


Tab. 4932. 
RHODODENDRON camelli^florum. 

Camellia-flowered Rhododendron. 

Nat. Orel. Erice^e. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron camelliaflorum ; ramulis petiolis pedunculis ovariis foliisque 
subtus dense ferrugineo-lepidotis, foliis crasse petiolatis eoriaceis elliptico- 
lanceolatis acuminatis eoriaceis basi aeutis obtusisve, floribus solitary's v. 
binis breve crasse pedunculatis, pedunculis basi bracteolatis, calyeis limbi 
lobis 5 obtusis, corollas albte crasse coriacea? tubo subinflato lobis expla- 
natis orbiculatis coucavis breviore, staminibus 16, filamentis breviusculis 
eiliatis, stylo crasso curvo, ovario 1 0-loculari, capsula breviter oblonga 

Rhododendron camelliseflorum. Hook. fil. in Sik. Rliod. t. 28. Imam. Hort. 
Soc. Lmd. 1852, pp. 80, 103. 

The present plant is another example of the strange dissimi- 
larity in habit and general appearance that prevails throughout 
the now extensive genus Rhododendron. With the exception of 
the R. pendulum, a smaller species from the same country not 
yet introduced into England, there is none to which R. camel- 
liafiarum can be at all compared in the form of its flower and 
habit combined ; the foliage however resembles in many points 
that of R. Maddeni and cinnabarinum, and the corolla that of It. 
leptdotum, in form. The plant here figured was detected by Dr. 
Hooker in the pine forests of East Nepal and Sikkim, at an ele- 
vation of 9000 to 12,000 feet ; it was also found by the late Mr. 
Griffith in the mountains of the adjacent province of Bhotan. It 
generally grew epiphytically on the limbs of lofty trees, whence 
its branches hung down and were several feet long; but in the 
looser forests, where light and air were better distributed, it was 

U OUST 1st, I - 

found on the ground and on rocks. It has been distributed in 
gardens under the MS. name of R. theaflorum. 

Descr. Stems two to six feet long, as thick as a goosequill ; 
branchlets, peduncles, calyx, ovary, petioles, and under surface 
of the leaf densely clothed with brown, appressed, circular, hya- 
line scales ; a few of them are also scattered over the outer sur- 
face of the tube of the corolla. Leaves two or three inches long, 
spreading, very thick and coriaceous, deep green above, ellip- 
tical, lanceolate, acuminate ; petioles short, very stout. Pedun- 
cles axillary, short, stout, curved, clothed at the base with broad, 
ciliated bracts. Calyx lobes large, broadly oblong, blunt. Co- 
rolla white, one and a half inch across, of a very thick texture, 
pure white or with a faint rosy tinge ; the tube short, somewhat 
inflated ; lobes broad, expanded, concave. Stamens sixteen, large 
for the size of the flower. Style short, clavate, curved. 

Fig. 1. Under surface of portion of leaf. 2. Scale. 3. Flower. 4. Stamen. 
5. Flower, with corolla removed. 6. Transverse section of ovary. 7. Imperfect 
fruit : — all magnified. 


Tab. 4933. 
HETEROTROPA asaroides. 

Asarum-like Heterotropa. 

Nat. Ord. Aristolochie^e. — Dodecandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Mores hermaphroditi. Ferigonium coloratura, urceolatum, tubo 
late ventricoso, basi cum ovario connato, fauce angustata, annulo introflexo, pli- 
cato, lirabi trifidi laciniis cordatis, sestivatione induplicatis. Stamina 12, disco 
perigyno ovarii parti libera? adnato inserta sex exteriora (stigmatibus opposita) ; 
filamentis triangularibus, antherarum loculis subintrorsis, connectivo submutico 
interposito sejunctis; sex interiora alterna, filamentis nullis, antberarum sessilium 
loculis extrorsis, connectivo dorsali in acumen lanceolatum producto contiguis. 
Ovarium semi-inferum, sexloculare ; ovula in loculorum angulo centrali plu- 
rima, adscendentia. Styli 6, connati, stellatira expansi, singuli obcordati, inferne 
stigmatiferi ; stigmata ovato-attenuata, papillosa. Fructus . . . — Herba Japonica, 
liabitu Asari; foliis binis,profunde cordatis, obtusis, albo-maculatis ; floribus axilla- 
ribus, solitariis v. geminis, breviter pedicellatis,folio abortivo bracteatis, intus sordide 
fuscis,faucis annulo albido. Endl. 

Heterotropa asaroides. Morren et Decaisne, in Nouv. Ann. Soc. Nat. v. 2. p. 

314. t. 10. Graham, in Bot. Mag. t. 3746. 
Asarum Virginicum. Thunb. Fl. Jap. p. 190. 

Dr. Siebold introduced this curious plant (too nearly allied to 
Asarum) to our European gardens on his return from Japan. In 
1839 it was cultivated in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, when 
the late Professor Graham sent a description and a figure, which 
were published in our sixty-sixth volume of the Bot. Mag. t. 3746. 
The representation is however so indifferent that we are sure our 
friends will be glad to see a better one. The plant seems to have 
disappeared from our English gardens for a length of time, and 
now has been received again from the Belgian Gardens under 
the name of Asarum Japonicum. We have hitherto treated it as 
a greenhouse plant, but it is quite likely it would bear our winters 
in the open air. Its flowering season is April and May. 

Descr. Bhizome resembling that of Asarum Mropaum, 
branched and nodose, the branches bearing at the end two pe- 

\ ; GU8T 1st. 1856. 

tiolated, deeply cordate, approaching to ovate, entire leaves, gla- 
brous, as is every part of the plant, spotted and mottled as in 
Cyclamen Etiropaum. Petioles erect, as long as the leaves, deeply 
channelled in the inside. From the base of these, and arising 
from a bracteal scale, appears the jlovier, on a very short pe- 
duncle, inclined or drooping. Perianth depresso-globose, of a 
dark, dull, purplish-green colour, contracted near the base, where 
it is united to the base of the ovary, and still more contracted at 
the wrinkled and pale-coloured mouth ; the limb, of three large, 
triangular, but blunt segments, spreads horizontally. The in- 
ternal surface is deeply cellular. Stamens twelve, arising from a 
disc which surrounds the nearly superior ovary. Anthers almost 
sessile, alternately smaller, erect, ovate, acuminate ; cells adnate 
with the sides of the acute connectivum. Ovary a short, thick 
column, the base only incorporated with the perianth, six-celled ; 
cells many-ovuled. Stigma large, formed of six large rays, 
spreading horizontally over the entire ovary, each ray with a 
glandular stigmatic surface at the extremity. 

Fig. 1. Mower with the perianth cut through vertically, showing its interior 
surface, the stamens, the ovary, and large sessile-rayed stigma. 2. Stamens and 
pistils, removed from the perianth : — magnified. 



Tab. 4934. 
AGAVE Celsii. 

Celss Agave. 

Nat. Ord. Amaryllide.e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perigonium corollinum, superum, infundibuliforme, persistens, limbi 
sexpartiti laciniis subaequalibus. Stamina 6, tubo perigonii inserta ; Jilamenta 
filiformia, aestivatione inflexa, sub anthesi exserta; antherce lineares, versatiles. 
Ovarium inferum, triloculare. Ovula plurima, in loculorum angulo centrali bi- 
seriata, horizontalia, anatropa. Stylus filiformis, exsertus, cavus, apice pervius ; 
stigma capitato-trigonum. Capsula coriacea, trigono-triquetra, trilocularis, locu- 
licido-trivalvis. Semina plurima, plano-compressa ; testa chartacea, marginata ; 
raphe laterali, umbilicum prope basin lateralem chalaza subapicali jungente. 
Embryo cylindricus, axilis, albuminis carnosi longitudine, extremitate radiculari 
umbilicum spectante. — Herbae acaules v. caulescentes, interdum gigantece, longeBvee, 
sed semel fiorentes, in America tropica et subtropica cis aquatorem indigence, quce- 
dam nunc a mortalibus late diffusa ; foliis radicalibus carnosis, interdum maximis, 
marginibus spinosis ; floribus in scapo radicali bracteato paniculatis, numerosissimis. 

Agave Celsii; acaulis, tota glauca, foliis (bipedalibus) obovato-lanceolatis valde 
sed brevi anguste acuminatis insequaliter dentatis dentibus rectis curva- 
tisve simplicibus v. furcatis, scapo (4-pedali) toto bracteato bracteis inferi- 
oribus subfoliiformibus superioribus sensim magis subulatis, spica oblonga 
multiflora, floribus subgeminis, perianthio infundibuliformi (viridi) crassi- 
usculo, limbi laciniis ovatis acutis, filamentis styloque perianthio plus quam 
duplo longioribus. 

This fine Agave was received many years ago from the garden 
of M. Cels, at Paris, as an unknown species, and equally un- 
known as to its native country — probably Mexico. It does not 
appear to be anywhere described, but is distinguished from every 
other with which we are acquainted by its singularly glaucous 
foliage, more resembling that of some Aloe than an Agave. It 
flowered in May and June of the present year, for the first time 
with us. 

Descr. Stem none, or scarcely rising above the surface of the 
ground. Leaves one and a half to two feet long, obovato-lan- 
ceolate, suddenly and sharply acuminate, nearly plane above, 
more convex beneath, the margin beset with short spines very 

AUOU3T 1st, 1856. 

variable in shape, straight or falcate, simple or more or less 
equally bifid or denticulate at the margin ; the whole of a pale 
very glaucous green colour. Scape four feet long, entirely clothed 
with imbricated bracts, leaf-like (but smaller than the leaves) at 
the base, the root of the bracts gradually becoming smaller and 
more subulate upwards. Spike oblong, simple. Flowers gene- 
rally two from the same, or nearly the same, point, and each 
subtended by one or two subulate bracts from a quarter to 
three-quarters of an inch long. Perianth articulated upon an 
annular disc, two inches long or nearly so, fleshy, green, some- 
times tinged with purple, infundibuliform : the tube furrowed: 
the limb of six, moderately spreading, ovate, acute, slightly con- 
cave segments. Stamens six : filaments twice as long as the 
perianth, erect, subulate, bearing a long, linear, two-celled an- 
ther, fixed by the centre of the back, purplish-brown, afterwards 
green. Ovary oblong, furrowed, three-celled .■ ovules in two li- 
near rows in each cell. Style as long as the stamens, filiform. 
Stigma obscurely three-lobed. 

Fig. 1. Young and fully-expanded flower. 2. Section of ovary. 3. Portion 
of the margin of the leaf: — magnified. 


Tab. 4935. 

Sir James Brooke s Rhododendron. 

Nat. Ord. Erice;e. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron Brookeanum; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis coriaceis glabris 
snbtus concoloribus parce squamulosis subsessilibus, umbellis multifloris 
laxis, calyce obsoletissimo, corolla (consistentia carnoso-coriacea) lato-infun- 
dibuliformi aureo-fulva, tubo elongato basi dilatato superne subcampanulato, 
limbo araplo 5-lobo undulato-crispato, stamiaibus tubi longitudine, antheris 
convergentibus, ovario 5-loculari oblongo tomentoso basi annulo 10-lobato 
cincto, stylo incluso. 

Hhododendron Brookeanum. Low, in Journ. of Hort. Soc. Lond. v. 3. p. 82, 
cum Ic. p. 83. Gardeners' Chron. 1855, p. 404, cum Ic. 

A splendid and well-marked Indian Rhododendron, truly 
worthy to bear the name of the distinguished Rajah of Sarawak, 
Sir James Brooke, more especially being a native of the territory 
under the parental sway of that gentleman in Borneo. It is one 
of the many new Rhododendrons detected and described by Mr. 
Low in that fertile island, and it has been since introduced by 
Mr. Thomas Lobb to the nurseries of Messrs. Veitch and Sons, 
of the Exeter, and King's Road, Chelsea, Nurseries, and exhibited 
at the Horticultural Shows of 1855, where the plants naturally 
attracted much attention. " I shall never forget," says Mr. Low, 
" the first discovery of this gorgeous plant ; it was epiphytal 
upon a tree which was growing in the water of a creek. The 
head of flowers was very large, arranged loosely, of the richest 
golden yellow, resplendent when in the sun ; the habit was grace- 
ful, the leaves large. The roots are large and fleshy, not fibrous 
as those of the terrestrial Rhododendrons. It is the least com- 
mon of all the genus in the island, and has many varieties, which 
airier in having larger flowers and leaves, the former of a more 
or less red colour. Very high and large trees, in damp forests, 
are its favourite haunts." Our fine specimen here figured was 

SEPTEMBER 1st, 1856. 

received from Messrs. Veitch in April, 185G. B. Javanicum 
(Tab. 4336), the nearest ally to the present, has broader petio- 
lated leaves, more prominent stamens, and the lobes of the corolla 
not crisped at the margin. 

Descr. A shrub, epiphytal or terrestrial. Branches stout, 
dark purple. Leaves often ample, from six to nine inches long, 
firm, coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, acute, the margin a little revo- 
lute, the very short petiole dark purple, broad and thick : the 
colour a full green above, the same or a little paler beneath, but 
there sparingly dotted with minute radiated scales. Umbel large, 
lax, many-flowered, terminal. Peduncles rather short, glabrous. 
Calyx none, quite obsolete. Corollas between campanulate and 
infundibuliform, large, of a full orange or golden-tawny colour: 
the texture thick, between fleshy and coriaceous : the tube elon- 
gated, dilated at the base, spreading at the mouth and gradually 
widening into the large, five-lobed, crisped or undulated limb. 
Stamens ten, as long as the tube : filaments downy at the base : 
the anthers linear-oblong, curved and converging over the mouth 
of the corolla in a remarkable manner. Ovary oblong, five-celled, 
surrounded at the base with a broad, annular, ten-lobed, fleshy 
disc (as in B. Javanicum). Style shorter than the stamens. 
Stigma large red. 

Figs. 1, 2. Portions of the under side of a leaf, and a separate scale. 3. Sta- 
men. 4. Anther. 5. Pistil. 6. Base of ovary and annular disc : — magnified. 


Tab. 4936. 

Mr. Edgewortli s Rhododendron. 

Nat. Ord. Erice^e. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4336.) 

Rhododendron Edgeworthii ,- frutex saape epiphytus, ramulis petiolis pedun- 
culis capsulis foliisque subtus dense ferrugineo-villoso-tomentosis, foliis 
sublonge petiolatis elliptico-ovatis acutis vel acuminatis subcoriaceis ru- 
goso-reticulatis basi obtusis supra nitidis marginibus recurvis, pedunculis 
2-3 terminalibus v. ab innovationibus lateralibus, floribus speciosis albis, 
calycis ampli 5-partiti lobis foliaceis oblongo-obovatis insequalibus lanu- 
ginosis ciliatis, corollas tubo breviusculo late campanulato, limbi maximi 
lobis rotundatis venosis crenato-undulatis, staminibus 10 exsertis, fila- 
mentis inferne villosis, antheris elongatis, ovario dense tomentoso 5-locu- 
lari, stylo gracili basi lanuginoso, capsula oblongo-cylindracea recta obtusa 
valvis lignosis. Hook.fil. 

Khododendron Edgewortbii. Hook.fil. Mod. Sik. Himal. tab. 22, et in Journ. 
of Hort. Soc. of Lond. v. 7- p. 77. 

In India Rhododendrons are found in the temperate regions 
of the lofty mountains, as well as in the lowlands of the tropics : 
the latter however are chiefly, if not entirely, in the Malayan 
Archipelago. Of these we represented a splendid species in 
our immediately previous Plate (4935), from the plains of 
Sarawak, Borneo. A no less beautiful species, but of another 
description, is the subject of our present Plate, a native of the 
valleys of the inner ranges of the Sikkim-Himalaya Mountains, 
usually pendulous from trees, sometimes from rocks, elevation 
7-9000 feet above the sea-level : and this bears the name of 
the author's " accomplished and excellent friend P. Edgewortli, 
Esq., of the Bengal Civil Service, then Commissioner of Mool- 
tan, who has long and successfully studied the botany of Western 
Himalaya and of north-western India generally." 

Dr. Hooker justly observes of this, that it is a " truly superb 
species, from the size of the flowers and the roseate tinge on a 

SEPTEMBER. 1ST, 1856. 

white ground," and it is no less remarkable from the rich fer- 
ruginous down on the branches, leaves beneath, stipules, calyx, 
etc., and there is a bright play of light on the dark green foliage 
occasioned by the prominence of the areoles of the very strong 
reticulations. It flowers in a cool greenhouse in May in the 
Royal Gardens. 

Descr. A shrub, often pendulous from trees in its native 
country ; almost everywhere, except on the large corollas and on 
the upper side of the old leaves, densely clothed with a tawny 
or ferruginous tomentum, which is easily detached. Leaves, on 
moderately long petioles, three to four inches long, ovate-lanceo- 
late, rather finely acuminate, very dark blackish- green, glossy 
and very strongly and deeply reticulated. Flowers very large, 
showy. Calyx large, of five deep, oval, spreading, membrana- 
ceous lobes, tomentose at the back, ciliated at the margins. 
Corolla broadly or almost rotately campanulate : the tube short, 
gradually spreading into the very ample, five-lobed limb ; the 
lobes waved and crenulated : the colour pure white, tinged with 
rose and sometimes also with yellow towards the base. Stamens 
long, but unequal : filaments hairy at the base : anthers dark 
purple. Ovary very hirsutely tomentose, oval, with a lobed disc 
at the base : style longer than the stamens : stigma peltate, with 
teeth like lobes on its disc. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil and calyx. 3. Transverse section of ovary : — 


Tab. 4937. 
DENDROBIUM Amboinense. 

Long-petaled Amboyna Dendrobium. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4755.) 

Dendrobium Amboinense; pseudobulbis elongatis gracilibus subfusiformibus, 
folio solitario oblongo, floribus binis lateralibus, sepalis petalisque unifor- 
mibus lineari-lanceolatis longissimis, labello (floris ratione) nano trilobo lobia 
lateralibus ovato-rotundatis obtusis interrnedio subulate 

Dendrobium Amboinense. Hort. Rollison. 

This remarkable plant, one of the most singular of the many 
species of the genus Dendrobium known to us, was discovered 
by Mr. Hen shall in Amboyna, and imported by Messrs. Rollison, 
of Tooting Nursery ; it flowered in the Orchideous stove in June 
of the present year (1856). When the plant shall have attained 
more health and vigour, there is reason to believe that the 
flowers will be more numerous and larger. We hasten to make 
known to other Orchid-growers so interesting a species. 

Bescr. The leaf-bearing pseudobulbs are not more than three 
to four inches long, fusiform and angular, tapering at the base, 
the younger ones partially clothed with subfoliaceous scales ; the 
leaf itself terminal, solitary, oblong, acute, scarcely coriaceous, 
obscurely marked with parallel lines. In age, as it would ap- 
pear, these pseudobidbs lengthen, lose their leaf, and become 
naked, stem-like, and jointed, tetragonal below, bulbiform at the 
very base, four- to six-angled above: from this dry, stem-like 
pseudobulb the flowers appear, in pairs, large, cream-white, soon 
withering. Petals and sepals scarcely exhibiting any difference 
in size or in shape, linear-lanceolate, at first spreading, ere long 
becoming flaccid and closing over the lip. Labellmn small, in 
proportion to the rest of the flower, concave, but scarcely spurred 
at the base below, three-lobed, lateral lobes broad, ovate, obtuse, 


incurved over the column, the middle lobe subulate ; this lip has 
a yellow tinge, and the middle lobe is edged with a narrow, 
dark purple line ; the concave disc is occllated with minute, dark 
orange spots, and there is a pedicellated gland or fleshy tubercle 
near the base, and two lesser pairs of tubercles nearer the middle 
lobe. Column short, but decurrent where it unites with the base 
of the lip. Anther-case terminal, but sunk into the top of the 
column, dwarf and imperfect. 

Pig. 1. Labellum in situ, with the side-lobes enfolding the column. 2. The 
lip laid open. 3. Column and imperfect anther : — magnified. 

Vincent Breaks insp 

Tab. 4938. 

METHONICA virescens. 

African Methonica. 

Nat. Ord. Uvulauie^:. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perigonium corollinum, hexaphyllum, marcescens, foliola subse- 
qualia, undulata, caudata, reflexa. Stamina 6, perigonii foliolis basi inserta, 
subhorizontalia. Ovarium triloculare. Ovula plurima, biseriata, horizontalia, 
anatropa. Stylus terminalis, oblique declinatus ; stigma trifidum. Capsula sub- 
globosa, turbinata, trilocularis, tripartibilis. Semina plurima, biseriata, subglo- 
bosa; testa carnoso-spongiosa, coccinea; raphe filiformi, umbilicum basilarera 
clialazm terminali (nigrse) jungente. Embryo in basi albuminis carnosi uucinato- 
complicatus, extremitate utraque umbilico proxima. — Herbse scandentes, in Asia 
et Africa tropica (et subtropica) indigence ; radice tuberosa ; foliis sparsis sub ra- 
mis, oppositis vet ternatim verticillatis, sessilibus, lanceolatis acuminatis v. in cirrhum 
productis ; pedunculis unifloris, axillaribus terminalibusque. Endl. 

Methonica virescens; petalis late obovato-lanceolatis refractis apicibus acumi- 
natis retroflexis supra medium undulatis. 

Methonica virescens. Eunth, Enum. Plant, v. 4>. p. 277. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
cp. 135. 

Gloriosa virescens. Lindl. in Bot. Mag. t. 2539, et in Hort. Trans, v. 6. p. 
277. Roem. et Sch. Syst. v. 7. p. 366. 

Gioeiosa superba, /3, Lam. Cycl. v. 4<.p. 133. Var. foliis apice tantnm undu- 
latis. Benth. in Niger El. p. 539. 

Gloriosa simplex. Linn. Mant. 62 (not Bon). 

Gloriosa caerulea. "Mill. Diet. 2." 

Gloriosa angulata? "Schumacher et Thon" 

Gloriosa Abyssinica. Ach. Rich. El. Abyss, v. 2. p. 322. 

Clinostylis speciosa. Ilochst. in Furnr. Flora, 1844, p. 26, et in Schimp. Herb. 
Abyss, n. 1437. 

The reasons for preferring the name Methonica, Herm., to that 
of Gloriosa, Linn., are clearly given in a note to our Littonia 
modesta {vide supra, Tab. 4723) in the words of Dr. Wallich. 
We wish we could consider the name of the present species un- 
exceptionable ; it was probably given by Dr. Lindley to a speci- 
men (such as that seems to be in the figure of Dr. Sims, 1. c. 


Tab. 2539), grown in the shade. It possesses, in reality, a 
brighter-coloured and more brilliant flower than the much- 
vaunted M . superba ; and we are anxious that justice should be 
rendered to the species in our present Plate. Blossoming at the 
same time and in the same stove with M. superba, the differ- 
ences are very apparent and constant. In our plant we have 
the lamina of the petals broadly obovate ; and these are not only 
refracted, but have the suddenly acuminated apices revolute or 
retroflexed, and are only undulated at the margins above the 
middle ; whereas in M. superba the petals, linear-lanceolate, are 
refracted indeed, but straight (not revolute at their apices), and 
they are undulato- crisped for their whole length. M. virescens 
is an inhabitant of Senegal, the Congo ; we possess it from the 
interior of Natal, from Abyssinia, Mozambique, and it seems to 
be a native of Madagascar. We find it in gardens named M. 
Plantii and M. Leopoldii. 

Descr. The habit and foliage of this species are quite like 
those of M. superba, but the leaves are smaller, mostly cirrhi- 
ferous ; when destitute of cirrhi the plant is G. simplex of Lin- 
naeus. The flowers too have the same general structure as in 
21. superba, but they are larger and more showy. The petals 
are broadly obovato-spathulate, soon refracted : the apices are 
suddenly acuminated and always retroflexed or revolute, and the 
upper half only has the margins undulated ; the claw and the 
lower half are yellow, sometimes with a faint streak of green. 
Stamens and pistil (with- the curiously geniculated style) as in 
the Indian species. 

Tig. 1. Section of ovary. 2. Stigmas: — magnified. 


Tab. 4939. 
salvia porphyrata. 

Bright red-Jlowered Sage. 

Nat. Ord. Labiate. — Diandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4874.) 

Salvia porphyrata ; caule erecto inferne adscendente decumbente tetragono 
subincano, foliis sublonge petiolatis reniformi-cordatis crenato-lobatis supra 
glabriusculis subtus pubescenti-incanis, racemo elongato, verticillastris 
4-6-floris, bracteis lanceolato-ovatis parvis, pedicellis brevibus, calyce labio 
superiore truncato bidentato (denticulo intermedio obsolete) inferiore bifido, 
corollse pubescentis intenso-coccineae calyce triplo longioris labio superiore 
brevi recto bifido, inferiore amplo trilobato, lobis lateralibus ovatis inter- 
medio maximo bifido, staminibus exsertis loculis omnibus polliniferis. 

Salvia porphyrata. " Becaisne, in Rev. Hortic. 4 Sir. vol. 3. p. 301. /. 16." 
Garden. Chron. 1854, p. 694. 

This very pretty Sage was received from Mr. Thomson, of 
Ipswich, under the name of Salvia Boemeriana (Scheele, in 
Linnsea, vol. xxii. p. 586), and consequently as a native of Texas. 
The name is unquestionably an error, and thus doubt is natu- 
rally thrown upon the locality. From another source we learn 
that it bears the name of 8. porphyrantha of Decaisne, in a work 
which we have not to consult, but it sufficiently accords with the 
brief notice of that plant in the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ;' but the 
native country seems unknown. The miserable description we 
have of S. crenata, Mart, et Gal., a Mexican species, accords 
sufficiently with our plant in the leaves and colour of the flowers ; 
but it is impossible to decide the point with only two lines ot 
diagnosis in a genus of considerably above five hundred species. 
It is probably not hardy, though it flowers in the open air, m 
July; and it will probably make a valuable bedding-out species 
the plants being humble in stature, and the flowers copious and 


brilliant. Its leaves in shape very much resemble those of the 
Ground Ivy, Glechoma hederacea. 

Descr. Plant a span or at most a foot high, decumbent be- 
low, then erect. Stem and branches tetragonous, slightly hoary, 
purple-green. Leaves all on long footstalks, cordate or between 
cordate and reniform, lobato-crenate at the margin, venoso-reti- 
culate, glabrous or only slightly downy above, beneath hoary, 
indistinctly pilose on the nerves, hair or down mixed with mi- 
nute shining points. Raceme terminal, elongate. Whorls four- 
to six-flowered (the uppermost two-flowered). Bracteas small, 
ovato-lanceolate. Pedicels short. Calyx green, tipped with 
deep purple; upper lip plain, truncated, two-toothed, the in- 
termediate tooth being obsolete : lower lip bifid, with two, su- 
bulate, erect segments. Corolla thrice as long as the calyx, rich 
scarlet, downy : the tube compressed, slightly curved or arched : 
upper lip {ox galea) short, straight, bifid : lower lip large, three- 
lobed, deflexed, lateral lobes ovate, obtuse, spreading, interme- 
diate, subrotundate, cleft. Anthers exserted beyond the galea; 
the branches of the connections each bear a polliniferous cell. 
Ovaries four, on a large fleshy gland. Stic/ma unequally bifid. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil -.—magnified. 


Tab. 4940. 
ARGYREIA hirsuta. 

Villous Argyreia. 

Nat. Ord. Convolvulace.e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Sepala 5. Corolla campanulata. Stylus 1. Stigma capitatum, 
bilobum. Ovarium biloculare (?), 4-spermum. Fructus baccatus, sepalis saepe 
intus rubescentibus et induratis cinctus. — Herbse aut suffrutices Indices aut Chi- 
nenses (except A.? Abyssinica), vegetationis aspectu spectabiles, plerumque argenteee, 
sericeae aut tomentosm. Choisy. 

Argyreia (§ Samudra) hirsuta; caule petiolis pedunculis petiolis calycibus co- 
rolla tubo pilis patulis strigoso-hirsutis, foliis cordatis mucronatis longe 
petiolatis subtus villoso-tomentosis, pedunculis folio longioribus uni-plnri- 
floris, floribus subcymosis laxis, bracteis linearibus s. lanceolatis, sepalis 
ovatis, corollis magnis speciosis, tubo elongato inferne subinttato, liuibo 

Argyreia hirsuta. Wight et Am. Tug. PI. Lid. Or. p. 38. Choisy, in Be Cand, 
Prodr. v. 8. p. 331. 

Rivea hirsuta. Wight, Ic. Plant. Ind. Or. t. 891. 

Abgyreia Choisvana. Hort. 

Beautiful as are many of the tropical Bi?idweeds, we have 
rarely seen a more beautiful and striking one than the present, 
trained as our plant is along the rafters of a stove, with bright 
green, good-sized leaves, peculiarly villous stems, branches, pe- 
tioles, etc., and its ample bright lilac corollas. We received it 
from the Paris Garden in 1850, under the name of Argyreia 
Choisyana, a name which we cannot find in any botanical work 
within our reach; but the plant corresponds in every essen- 
tial particular with Argyreia hirsuta of Wight and Arnott in 
their ' Pugillus,' and which Dr. Wight afterwards, in his inva- 
luable 'Icones/ figures and describes as Bivea hirsuta. His 
reasons for this change are given by the learned author in vol. iv. 
of the 'Icones,' under No. 1355, and also his views of reducing 
a number of the genera of M. Choisy into one ; in other words, 
making Bivea, Argyreia, and Lettsomia to comprise all of the 
first section of Convolvulacerp, all having indehiscent fruit ; viz. 

OCTOBER 1st, ISof). 

Bivea, recognized by its four-celled capsule, stigmas two, linear, 
cylindrical or lamellate ; Argyreia, ovary four-celled, stigmas 
capitately two-lobed; Lettsomia, ovary two-celled, cells two- 
seeded, stigmas capitately two-lobed. With this view of the 
genera the plant under consideration will revert to Argyreia. 

Descr. A climbing plant of very great extent, the herbaceous 
portion of the stem and branches, the petioles, peduncles, bracts, 
calyx, and tube of the corolla excessively villous, with long, 
spreading hairs ; branches terete. Leaves large, exactly cordate, 
tipped with a soft mucro, bright green above and scarcely hairy, 
the margin and whole surface beneath clothed with pale down 
intermixed with appressed hairs, abundant on the numerous reti- 
culated, prominent nerves. Peduncle long and twisted, generally 
longer than the petiole, bearing, according to the strength and 
vigour of the plant, one or more forcers ; in the latter case sub- 
cymose, lax (not compact or capitate). Bracts in opposite pairs, 
some distance from the calyx, linear or lanceolate. Sepals ovate, 
somewhat imbricated, erect and appressed. Corolla very large, 
of a beautiful deep lilac colour, subhypocrateriform rather than 
campanulate ; the tube long, a little contracted below the limb ; 
the limb ample, spreading almost horizontally, indistinctly five- 
lobed, the broad lobes emarginate in the centre, the edge a 
little undulated. Stamens quite included within the tube. Ovary 
sunk into a large, fleshy, hypogynous disc. Style filiform. Stigma 
capitate, bilobed, lobes granulated. 

Pig. 1. Pistil : — magnified. 

We take the opportunity of remarking here that Mr. Moore has obligingly 
assured us that seeds of Salvia porphyrata (Tab. 4939) were undoubtedly received 
from Texas along with those of other Texian plants, such as Gaura Lindhei- 
meriana, Ungnadia speciosa, etc. 


WEtch 4i f*.lxh. 

■Wnoent Bro<fc faf 

Tab. 4941. 

Drooping-jloivered Lymmachia . 

Nat. Ord. PRIMULACEiE. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx quinquepartitus. Corolla quinquepartita, subrotata campa- 
nulatave, calyce longior, tubo rainimo. Stamina 5, basi corolla; inserta : filamenta 
in quibusdam basi connata ; filamenta sterilia interdum totidem ac fertilia : an- 
them oblongaj. Capsula globosa, 5-lb-valvis, apice dehiscens, polysperma.— - 
nerbee plerumque perennes ; folds alternis oppositis vel verticillatis integerrimis ; 
nonbus axillaribus racemosis, spicatis aut paniculatis. Duby. 

Lysimachia (§ Ephemerum) nutans; caule erecto subsimplici, folds oppositis 
temisve lanceolatis integris margine subsinuatis acuminatis glaberrimis basi 
in petiolum brevem coarctatis, floribus racemosis terminalibus primo congestis 
demum per florescentiam laxis, bracteolis lineari-subulatis pedicellis subduplo 
nnnoribus, calycis tubulosi 5-angularis 5-partiti corolla subtriplo brevioris 
laciniis lanceolato-linearibus obtusis, corollse tubuloso-catnpanulata lobis 
lanceolato-spathulatis apice eroso-denticulatis, staminibus sequalibus exsertis, 
stylo subulate Duby. 

Lysimachia nutans. Nees ah Esenb. Bel. Sem. Hort. Bonn. 1831. Be Cancl. 
Prodr. v. 8. p. 61. 

Lysimachia atropurpurea. Rook. Exot. Fl. t. 180 (not Linn, et auct., nor the 
plant there quoted of Commelin). 

Lubinia atropurpurea. Link d Otto, Hort. Bet. t. 27- Sweet, Fl. Gard. Ser. 2. 
v. 1. t. 84. 

Coxia. Endl. Gen. p. 733. 

A South African plant of comparatively recent discovery, having 
been found in marshy mountains of the Cape district by Ecklon 
and Zeyher and by Drege, and introduced to the gardens of this 
country. It was confounded by Link and Otto and Sweet with 
the Mauritian genus Lubinia; but it seems clearly to belong 
to the " Ephemerum " section of Lysimachia, however different 
from other species of the genus in the size and colour of the 
flowers. It blossoms in July, and bears the open air well in 
summer ; but the root requires shelter in the winter. The spe- 

POBIB 1ST, 1856. 

citic name nutans is hardly applicable, for it is only in the young 
state of the raceme that it droops. 

Descr. Perennial, glabrous. Stem erect, obscurely four-angled, 
bearing a few opposite branches. Leaves opposite, lanceolate^ 
shortly acuminate, tapering into an imperfect footstalk, which is 
semi-amplexicaul, penninerved, paler, and minutely dotted be- 
neath. Raceme terminal, spicate, at first drooping, afterwards erect, 
many-flowered. Pedicels very short, bracteated ; bracteas small, 
linear-lanceolate. Calyx cut almost to the base into five linear- 
oblong, obtuse, erect segments. Corolla large in proportion to 
the calyx, in shape carapanulato-infundibuliform, but cut into 
five very deep, oblong-cuneate lobes, erose or jagged at the extre- 
mity ; the colour a deep bright reddish-purple, the short tube mi- 
nutely dotted within. Stamens inserted at the edge of the tube, 
five, equal: filaments much exserted, erect, minutely dotted, 
purple: anther oval, almost black. Ovary small, subrotund. 
Style thick, subulate, about half the length of the corolla. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil, with a portion of the corolla and stamens. 
6. Iransverse section of ovary: — magnified. 


■di dd.etlith. 

Vincent Brooks Imp 


Tab. 4942. 


Mound-leaved Codonopsis. 

Nat. Ord. Campantjlace,e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Codonopsis, Wall, Endl. — Gen. Char. Calyx tubo hemisphaerico, cum ovario 
connato, limbo semisupero quinquelobo. Corolla summo calycis tubo inserta, 
carnosula, campanulata, apice quinqueloba. Stamina 5, cum corolla inserta : fila- 
metitis basi sublatioribus antherisque liberis. Ovarium inferum, triloculare. Ovula 
in placentis ex angulo centrali loculorum plurima, anatropa. Stylus inclusus ; 
stigmata 3, ovata, crassa. Capsula bemispbaerica, trilocularis, apice acuto, loculi- 
cido-trivalvis. Semiua plurima, ovoideo-cylindrica. Embryo in axi albuminis 
carnosi qrthotropus ; cotyledonibus brevissimis ; radicula umbilico proxima, centri- 
peta.— Herba? in India septentrionali monticola, sapius glaberrimee ; caulibus e 
caudice lignoso adscendentibus, plerumque volubilibus ; foliis alternis v. oppositis, 
petiolatis, crenatis, subtus glancescentibus v. incanis ; floriblis axillaribus terminali- 
bu&qne pedimculatis, luteo- v. ceerideo-virescentibus v. purpureis. Endl. 

Codonopsis rotundifolia ; pilosula, caule volubili, foliis plerisque oppositis pe- 
tiolatis ovatis subrotundatisve crenato-serratis, pedunculis termiualibus soli- 
tariis unifloris petiolo multo longioribus, calycis tubo bemisphaerico sulcato 
lobis late oblongo-ovatis foliaceis obtusis subdentatis patentibus tubo multo 
longioribus, corolla lobis calycinis sublougioribus urceolato-subgloboso-cam- 
panulata, lobis triangularibus patentibus, capsula basi rotuudata. 

Codonopsis rotundifolia. Benth. in Boyle, Illustr. Bot. Himal. p. 254. t. 62. 

M ahlenbekgia (§ Megasantbes) rotundifolia. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 7. p. 425. 

Dr. Hooker, in his account of three species of Codonopsis, in 
his splendid 'Illustrations of Himalayan Plants/ proposes to unite 
Campanmnma, Blume, and the first section of De Candolle's 
WaJdenberffia ($ Megasanthes) with Codonopsis, as defined by 
De Candolle ; and we think with much justice, notwithstanding 
the variable position of the calyx relatively to the ovary or cap- 
sule. That our plant is the same as Dr. Royle's we have quite 
satisfied ourselves ; but the leaves are never so rotundate in our 
specimens, whether wild or cultivated, and his figure being drawn 
probably and coloured from dried specimens, the flowers are 
very faulty both in form, size, and colour. Our plants in the 
Royal Gardens were derived from seeds sent by Dr. Royle from 

"ober 1st, 1856. 

Descr. A long, slender, climbing, annual (?), slightly hairy in 
all the herbaceous portion. Leaves petiolated, opposite or rarely 
alternate, ovate, rather obtuse, sometimes approaching to cor- 
date, sometimes subrotund, more or less coarsely crenato-serrate, 
penniveined, slightly reticulated. Peduncles terminal, slender, 
single-flowered. Floicer large, not much unlike that of Atropa 
Belladonna. Calyx with a hemispherical, sulcated tube, which 
is incorporated with the greater part of the ovary : the limb con- 
sists of five, large, foliaceous, oblong-ovate, entire or nearly entire 
segments, which spread horizontally or are eventually reflexed, 
obscurely three- nerved. Corolla large, urceolato-globose, campa- 
nulate, the tube inflated : the limb of five, spreading, triangular 
segments ; the colour yellowish-green, veined with dark purple. 
Stamens quite included, short : filaments subulate, much dilated 
at the base : anther linear-oblong. Ovary, the lower half (ad- 
herent with the calyx) hemispherical, sulcated; the upper half 
depressed, but in the centre conical, and tapering into the short 
style : stigmas three-lobed, lobes very large, oval, glandular, exter- 
nally glandulose. 

Fig. 1. Ovary and stamens: — magnified. 


WRtdi del edith 

lucent Brooks Inf 

Tab. 4943. 

OROBUS Fischeri. 

Br. Fischer s Bitter-Vetch. 

Nat. Ord. Leguminos^. — Diadelphia Decandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulatus, 5-fidus, lobis 2 superioribus brevioribus. 
Corolla papilionacea. Stamina diadelpha. Stylus gracilis, linearis, apice villosus. 
Legnmen cylindricum, oblongum, uniloculare, bivalve, polyspermum. Semina hilo 
lineari. — Herbse eredce. Stipuke semisugittatce. Petioli in setam brevem simpli- 
cem desinentes. Folia abrupte pinnala, pancijuga. Kacemi axillares, pedunculati. 
De Cand. 

Orobus Fischeri ; glabriusculus, caule erecto gracili parce ramoso, foliis unijugis, 
petiolo perbrevi, foliolis linearibus brevi-acuminatis, stipulis auriculaque 
subulatis, racemis multifloris pedunculatis secundis, " leguminibus reticu- 
lato-venosis 6-7-spermis, seminibus subrotundis fuscis." 

Orobus Fischeri, Sweet, Brit. Fl. Card. v. 3. t. 289. Walp. Rep. Bot. Syst. v. 1. 
p. 723. 

Orobus atropurpureus. Fisch. AISS. (an Desf. Fl. Atl. ?) 

"Orobella vicioides. Presl, de Orobella, 8. t. 4. p. 28." 

That this pretty Orobus is the 0. Fischeri of Mr. Sweet there 
can be no question. It was introduced to our gardens by the 
late Robert Barclay, Esq., of Bury Hill, through seeds sent by 
Dr. Fischer under the name of 0. atropurpurea of Desf., and it 
is doubtful if it be not a mere variety of that plant, having the 
leaves reduced to one pair of leaflets. That seems the only diffe- 
rence, but that is constant in the cultivated samples : and it is a 
plant that deserves a place in our gardens, is perfectly hardy, and 
a free-flowerer, and the flowers are highly coloured. Being sent 
from Russia by Dr. Fischer, Mr. Sweet considers that ? it is ol 
Russian origin; but there is no such plant in Ledebour's 'Flora 
Rossica,' and the probability is that its native country is the same 
as that of 0. atropurpureus, viz. the south of Italy and opposite 

coast of Africa. 

Descr. Stem erect, four-sided, more or less branched, slender 
and twiggy. Leaves on verv short petiole*, consisting ot a single 
pair of narrow, linear, acuminated leaflets, with a mucro between 

OCTOBER 1st, 1856. 

them ; they are longitudinally veined, and have a silky pubescence 
beneath. Stipules small, subulate, with a subulate lobe or awn 
at the base, and with a slight depression at the back, where it is 
set on to the stem. Peduncles solitary, axillary, about as long as 
the leaves, bearing a raceme of eight or ten or more pendent, 
secund flowers, an inch long, of a very rich bright purple-red 
colour. Pedicels short. Calyx also short in proportion to the 
length of the corolla : upper lip of two short teeth, lower with 
three teeth or lobes, of which the middle one is longer than the 
lateral ones, all erect and appressed against the corolla, silky- 
green, tinged with purple. Vexillum large in proportion to the 
rest of the flower, veined, notched at the apex. Wings deeper 
coloured than the rest of the flower. Staminal tube very long : 
one stamen free. Ovary linear, compressed, stipitate : style with 
a brush of hairs beneath the stigma. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Vexillum. 3. One of the alas. 4. Carina. 5. Stamens. 
Pistil :■ — magnified. 


Tab. 4944. 
DENDROBIUM Falconeri. 

Dr. Falconer s Dendrobium. 

Nat. Orel. Orchide.e. — Gyxandria Monaxdria. 
Gen. Char. [Vide supra, Tab. 4755.) 

Dendrobium (§ Dendrocoryne) Falconeri ; caulibus hie illic ramosis elongatis 
pendulis gracilibns striatis articulatis geniculis nodosis, foliis paucis parvis 
1-3 ^ terminalibus linearibus, pedicellis solitariis unifloris, floribus amplis 
speciosis, sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis subtortilibus petabsque ovatis fequilon- 
gis patentibus apice purpureo-maculatis, labello cucullato limbo vix trilobo 
ovato acuto undulato integerrimo ciliato disco aurantiaco basi apiceque pur- 
pureis, calcare brevissimo. 

The sample here figured is only part 'of a stem, which was 
3-4 feet long, with upwards of sixty flowers upon it, and which 
continued twelve or fourteen days in perfection, was sent to us 
by George Reid, Esq., of Burnham, Somerset, with the remark 
that the plant was imported in April of the present year from 
the mountains of Bootan, elevation 4000 feet, under the name of 
Dendrobium Falconeri, and purchased at an auction in London. 
It certainly is among the most lovely of the genus, and very dis 
tinct from any species we know ; nearest akin to the Dendrobium 
Macarthiee of our friend Thwaites (Bot. Mag. t. 4866).* 

Dr. Lindley considers the species to be entirely new, to belong 
to his section of the genus Dendrocoryne, and to come near D. 
tetrcyonum of All. Cunn. in Bot. Reg. 1839, Misc. 30, and 1841, 
Misc. 8. 

Descr. Stem, rather than pseudobulb, long, slender, branched, 
pendulous, jointed, the joints contracted in the middle, and con- 
sequently nodose at their point of junction, striated. Leaves few, 

I Q the description accompanying that plate it was carelessly omitted to be 
mentioned that both the drawing and description were sent by our excellent friend 
Mr. Thwaites, who is the author of the name. 

OCTOBER 1st, 1856. 

1-3, terminal, very small and insignificant, linear. Flowers 
large, copious upon the branches. Peduncles solitary, arising 
from a geniculation, slender, single-flowered. Sepals spreading, 
oblong-lanceolate, somewhat twisted, acuminate, pale rose-colour, 
tipped with dark purple. Petals equal in length with sepals, 
but much broader, ovate, acute rather than acuminate, white- 
tipped, with a broad patch of deep purple spreading horizontally. 
Lip large, cucullate; the limb or lamina obscurely 3-lobed, cor- 
date, acute, waved ; the ground-colour white, the disc orange- 
yellow, with a large central dark-purple spot, auother on the 
under side corresponding with it, and with the same colour at 
the tip; the margin is quite entire, but fringed or ciliated. Spur 
short. Column short, but decurrent with the spur. Anther-case 
oblong, hemispherical, downy. 

Fig. 1. Column and anther: — magnified. 

Tab. 4945. 

East Indian Cow-itch or Coioage. 

Nat. Ord. LEGUjiiNOSiE. — Diadelphia Decandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulatus, bilabiatus; labia inferiore trifido, laciniis acutis 
medio productiore; labio superior* latiore integro obtuso. Corolla vexillunn d 
surgens, alis carinaque brevius, alse oblongae carinas longitudine ; carina o b ong, 
recta, acuta. Stamina diadelphia ; antheris 5 oblongo-linearibus, 5 ovatis hirsutis. 
Legumen oblongum, torosum, bivalve, septis cellulosis. Semina subrotunda, kilo 
lineari circulariter cincta. — Herbaa aid frutices longe scandentes. Folia pinnato- 
trifqliolata. Eacemi axillares, fructiferi sapius penduli. Legumina sapius his- 
pida, pilis innumeris fragilissimis cutem facile penetrantibus et ideo urentibus. Be 

Mucuna (§ Stizolobium) prurita; perennis, ramis pubescentibus v. parce hir- 
sutis, foliolis ovatis supra glabris subtus pilis raris sericeis adspersis, race- 
mis densis folio brevioribus longe pedunculatis nutantibus, calyce ad medium 
bilabiato adpresse pilosis labii inferioris laciniis lato-lanceolatis, leguminibus 
curvatis pilis rigidis prurientibus vestitis, valvis medio non carinatis. Wight 
et Am. 

Mucuna prurita. Hook. Bot. Misc. v. 2. p. 348. Suppl. t. 13. (M. pruriens, 

Wight.) Wight et Am. Prodr. Fl. Penins. Ind. Or. p. 255. 
Mucuna pruriens. Wall. Cat. n. 5616. Wight. Cat. n. 755. 
Carpopogon pruriens. Roxb. Fl. Ind. p. 383 (excl. syn. Linn.). 
Cacara pruritus. Bumph. Amb. 6. p. 393. t. 142. 
Nai Corana. Rheede, Malab. 8. p. 61. t. 65. 

There is something very peculiar in the great thyrsiform 
drooping racemes, with large blackish-purple flowers, hanging 
at the extremity of the long peduncles from the branches of this 
extensive climber, as seen in the stove of the Palm-house at Kew 
during the summer months, and looking like bunches of large 
black grapes. This is one of the species of Cowage or Cow-itch, 
of which two are considered to yield the substance known 
under that name, celebrated as an anthelmintic, viz. the present, 

OCTOBER 1st, 1856. 

a native of the East Indies, and M. pruriew, derived from 
the West Indies. The two were for a long time confounded. 
De Candolle threw some doubt upon their identity, and Dr. 
Wight and ourselves, in the Bot. Misc. 1. c., pointed out the diffe- 
rence. M. pruriens is figured by Dr. Lindley in the Bot, Reg. 
1838. tab. 18. The seeds of our plant were brought by Dr. 
Hooker from India. As we had not the opportunity of seeing 
the flowers and fruit in perfection, we copy Dr. Wight's descrip- 
tion from the Bot. Misc. It seems a common species in most 
parts of India, especially about Madras. 

Descr. Stetns suffruticose, twining, branched; branches 
rounded, hairy. Petioles much enlarged at the base, six to eight 
inches long, cylindrical, hairy. Leaves ternate (trifoliolate), middle 
leaflet rhomboideo-elliptical, obtuse (scanty in our plant), mucro- 
nate ; lateral ones much dilated on the outside, and also mucro- 
nate, on short, thick, rusty, tomentose stalks ; above, nearly gla- 
brous; below, silvery, from short appressed white hairs ; the veins 
very prominent beneath. Stipules filiform-subulate, those of the 
leaflets much smaller. Bacemes pedunculated, axillary, pendulous, 
much shorter than the petioles, thyrsoid. Flowers large, dark 
purple. Pedicels in threes, short, arising from a small thick 
tubercle. Calyx pubescent, two-lipped ; upper lip entire, obtuse ; 
under one three-cleft, the lobes acute. Corolla: vexillum not half 
the length of the keel, varying in colour from dirty white to pale 
(or deep) purple ; wings rather shorter than the keel, dark purple ; 
keel cylindrical to near the end, where it suddenly curves up- 
wards and terminates in a sharp spinous point. Stamens dia- 
delphous; anthers alternately linear and globular. Pistil: ger- 
men short, hairy ; style filiform, pubescent for its whole length ; 
stigma subcapitate. Legume three to four inches long, and bent 
at the extremities, three-quarters of an inch to an inch, or very 
nearly so, broad, slightly compressed on the valves, not at all 
carinated, contracted between the seeds, and hence subtorulose, 
entirely covered with a thick coating of erect, white, prurient 
hairs, which usually turn black in drying, and brown in maturity. 
Seeds four or five, oval, not bound by a circular, linear hilum, 
but attached to a large, lateral funiculus. B. Wight. 

Fig". 1. Pistil : — magnified. 


"TOtdn. ". - 

Tab. 4946. 
PELARGONIUM Endlicherianum. 

Endlichers Crane's-bill. 

Nat. Ord. Geraniace^e. — Monadelphia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus, lacinia suprema in calcar seu tubulum nectari- 
ferum tenuem secus pedunculum decurreutem et huic adnatum. Petala 5, ra- 
rius 4, plus minus irregularia. Filamenta 10, inscqualia, raonadelpha, 4-7 tan- 
tum fertilia, cetera castrata. — Species omnes, paucis exceptis, ad Caput Bonse Spei 

Pelargonium Endlicherianum; molliter pubescens, rhizomate polycephalo crasso, 
caulibus simplicibus erectis, foliis radicalibus reniformibus grosse crenatis 
suromis ultra medium quinquefidis, umbella longe pedunculata 3-8-flora, 
petalorum posticis duobus maximis obovato-cuneatis subtruncatis repando- 
undulatis roseis venis 5 ramosis purpureis, anticis tribus insequalibus calyce 
dimidio brevioribus oblongis integris v. 3— 5-fidis, staminibus declinato-ad- 
scendentibus glabris basi monadelphis, fertilibus sterilia dimidio superanti- 
bus. Fenzl. 

Pelargonium Endlicherianum. "Fenzl, Nov. Stirp. Pupil, v. 1. p. 6. Abbildungen 
und Beschreibungen Seltn. Ffinzn. t. 3. Atlas zu Russeger's Reise, Hft. 2. 
t. 3." Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 2. p. 820. Walp. Ann. Bot. v. I. p. 141. 

The genus Pelargonium was rightly separated by L'Heritier 
from Geranium ; and the numerous species were long believed to 
be peculiar, not only to the southern hemisphere, but to the Cape 
Colony. Of late years however South Australia and the South- 
Sea Islands have yielded a few species ; and more recently still 
the western Taurus has afforded the very handsome species here 
represented. I regret that I have not access to Fenzl's works, 
where this plate is figured and described, nor to the travels of 
Russeger, where a figure is also quoted ; so that I am unable 
to take advantage of any information given there, beyond the 
specific character copied into Walpers. We received seeds from 
the Botanic Garden of Copenhagen, from which plants were 
raised, that flowered in a cool greenhouse in July, 1856. 

Descr. Rootstock " large." Stems several from the same root, 
erect, simple, terete, herbaceous, soft with fine down, which in- 
vests all the plant, petals excepted, slightly swollen at the joints. 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

Leaves few, radical ones upon long stalks, cauline ones on 
shorter stalks, all of them cordate, plicate, with a deep sinus, 
obscurely five-lobed, lobes duplicato-crenate. Stipules subtri- 
angular, brown, membranous. Peduncles long, terminal, stout. 
Umbel terminal, of many, large, deep rose-coloured flowers. Pe- 
dicels decurved in bud, erect in flower, about one and a half inch 
long, thickened upwards by the decurrent nectary. Calyx of 
five, spreading, lanceolate sepals. Two of the five petals are 
very large, erect, obcordate, waved, marked with five, branched, 
deep -purple nerves : three lower petals extremely minute, 
smaller than the sepals, oblong, obtuse, unguiculate, erect. 
Stamens standing forward, ten, unequal : filaments long, purple, 
monadelphous at the base. Ovary five-lobed, oblong, hirsute. 
Style as long as the stamens, glabrous. Stigmas five, linear. 

Fig. 1. Petals and pistil: — magnified. 

At Tab. 4918, we have stated that our Aristolochia Thwaitesii is a native of 
Ceylon ; but our excellent friend Mr. Thwaites says that there is some error in 
this ; and we have reason to believe that the label attached belonged to some 
other plant : — we think the plant is possibly of Chinese origin. We have never, 
however, seen it but in a state of cultivation, and have no certain clue to its 
native country. 

Tab. 4947. 

Ramburs Moricandia. 

Nat. Ord. Crucifer^. — Tetradynamia Siliquosa. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tetraphyllus, clausus, foliolis lateralibus basi saccatis. Co- 
rolla petala 4, hypogyna, indivisa. Stamina 6, hypogyna, tetradynama, libera, 
edentula. Siliqua bivalvis, elongato-linearis, compressa vel compresso-tetragona, 
valvis planis vel carinatis, septo membranaceo, stylo compresso, aspermo vel ra- 
nus monospermo. Semina plurima, ovata, pendula, biseriata, immarginata, kevia. 
Embryonis exalbuminosi cotyledones canaliculato-complicatae, radiculam adscen- 
dentem includentes. — Herbse in JSuropa et Africa Mediierranea indigent, annum 
vel biennes, aut basi suffruticosa perennes, glabra, plerumque subglauca ; caulibus 
erectis, teretibus, ramosis, albicantibus ; foliis crassiusculis, integerrinm, sinuato- 
dentatis vel multifidis ; racemis terminalibus, laxis, aphyllis, pedicellis filiformibus, 
fructiferis strictis ; floribus majusculis, purpurascentibus. Endl. 

Moricandia Ramburii ; foliis subcarnosis glabris, radicalibus late ovatis obtu- 
sissime sinuato-dentatis, caulinis cordato-amplexicaulibus, calyce valde bi- 
saccato, sepalis exterioribus in mucronem attenuatis interiora superantibus, 
siliquis longissimis, valvis multinerviis, seminibus uniserialibus compressis 
anguste marginatis. Boiss. 

Moricandia Ramburii. Webb, It. Hisp. p. 73. 

Brassica moricandioides. Boiss. El. n. 12. Voy. Bot. en Espagne, p. 34. t. 8. 

A pretty, hardy, perennial, Spanish plant, found in the moun- 
tains of Granada, at an elevation of two to three thousand feet 
above the sea-level, generally in clefts of rocks, by Messrs. Webb 
and Rambur, and Boissier. Mr. Webb refers the plant to Mori- 
candia, Boissier to Brassica, for he combines this latter genus of 
Linnaeus, together with Moricandia, Diplotaxis, and Eruca, of 
De Cand., and Erucastrum, Spenn., all into one. Both our au- 
thors allude to the close affinity of our plant with Moricandia 
arvensis, L., from which at first sight it can scarcely be distin- 
guished, though truly distinct in its larger and more pointed 
leaves, larger flowers,' in the deeply bisaccate calyx and the form 
of the exterior sepals, in the longer and larger pods, and especially 
in the uniseriate seeds, twice as large as those of M. arvensis. 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

Descr. Stem one to two feet high, branched, suffruticose 
below. Leaves large, glaucous green ; lower ones the largest, 
broadly obovate, petiolate, cauline ones gradually smaller and 
sessile, while the upper ones are small and cordato-amplexicaul ; 
all with a rather acute apex or point. Racemes terminal on the 
branches, many-flowered ; pedicels slender. Calyx with the se- 
pals erect ; two opposite ones deeply bisaccate ; the other two op- 
posite ones longer, and tapering into a subulate mucronate point. 
Stamens six, tetradynamous. Ovary elongated, linear. Style 
short. Stigma capitate, decurrent on two opposite sides. " Si- 
liqua three to four inches long. Seeds uniserial, compressed, 
with a narrow margin, and emarginate at the apex." 

Fig. 1. Flower, from which the petals are removed. 2. Stamens aud pistil. 
3. Very young silique : — magnified. 

6.9 it. 

Tab. 4948. 
galipea macrophylla. 

Large-leaved Galipea. 

Nat. Ord. Rutack^:. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx brevis, 5-dentatus. Tetala 5, in corollam hypocrateriformem 
coalitis, seu valde approximata, tubo brevi pentagono, lobis patentibus acutis. 
Stamina 4>-l ,hyTpogyna, petalis subadhaerentia, inaequalia, interdum omnia fertilia, 
ssepius 2 majora antherifera, 2-5 breviora sterilia. Nectarium cupuliforme. 
Styli 5 in unicum mox coalita et stigma 4-5-sulcum constituentes. CarpelU 5 
aut abortu pauciora, biovulata, obtusa, cocculiformia, sessilia, endocarpio separabili. 
Semina abortu solitaria. Cotyledones magna?, corrugatse, biauriculatae. — Frutices 
glabri. Polia alterna, simplicia aut plurifoliolata ; foliolis oblongis, acuminatis. 
Pedunculi axillares, multijlori. Be Cand. 

Galipea macropJiylla ; foliis simplicibus ovali-oblongis petiolatis basi rotundatis 
subtus glandulis nigris opacis punctulatis, trunco simplici tenui, florum 
racemis erectis, staminibus 7, fertilibus 2. 

Galipea macrophylla. St. Hil. MSS. Be Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 731. 

Conchocarpus macrophyllus. Mikan, Bel. Fl. Bras. v. 1. t. 1, 2. Nees et 
Mart. Nov. Act. Bonn. v. 11. p. 160. t. 18./. 5. 

Kaputia conchocarpus. Scliult. Mant. v. 1. p. 126. 

Sciuris simplicifolia. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 39. 

Obentonia castrata. Velloz. Fl. Flum. v. 1. t. 46. 

Erythrochiton macrophyllum. Makoy, Cat. 

A Brazilian stove-plant, received from Mr. Makoy under the 
name of Erythrochiton* macrophyllum. No doubt it is very 
closely allied to that genus, nevertheless it differs in several im- 
portant particulars, and we see no reason for separating it from 
Galipea, where De Candolle has placed it. It has, however, 

* Dr. Planchon {Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. III. t. 19. p. 76) justly observes :—" On 
a jnsqu'ici de'crit les fleurs de V Erythrochiton brasiliemis comme pourvues deciuq 
etamines egales et fertiles. Ce caractere n'est pas constants en effet, sur deux 
exemplaires. . . . Nousavonsvu tantot cinq etamines fertiles, tantot quatreseiue- 
ment, la cinquieme transformed en une longue languette." We have now betore 
us a flower of the plant without one fertile stamen : there are four sterile short 
filaments, and one extended into a long sterile " languette." 


borne no less than six different generic names ; and we cannot 
but think the Naudinia of Planchon, in the volume of ' Annales ' 
referred to in the foot-note below (p. 79), too nearly allied to 

Descr. Stem in our plant scarcely a foot high, erect, simple, 
rather slender, bearing several long-petioled, simple leaves (or 
rather unifoliolate compound leaves) : these leaflets are elliptic or 
elliptic-oblong, three to ten or twelve inches long, obtuse, sub- 
coriaceous, very obtuse or rotundate at the base, glabrous, penni- 
nerved, beneath dotted with very minute brown dots ; petiole long, 
terete, swollen at the very base, and again at the apex, when the 
leaf or leaflet is jointed on the petiole. Peduncle lateral, supra- 
axillary, longer than the leaves, bearing an interrupted spike or 
■raceme of pale rose-coloured or white Jtoicers. Flowers two or 
three from the same point, on very short pedicels, with a leafy 
bractea at their base. Calyx small, tubular-cup-shaped, with five 
obscure teeth. Petals five, united by their claws into a subhy- 
pocrateriform corolla ; the tube straight ; limb oblique, of five, 
linear-oblong, spreading segments. Stamens, two perfect, in- 
cluded : anthers large, oblong-sagittate ; three elongated, much 
exserted, fleshy sterile filaments range with the two fertile ones, 
and two rather smaller ones have their origin higher up in the 
tube. Ovaries five, enclosed in an hypogynous toothed cup. 
Styles combined into one. Stigma capitate. 

Fig. 1. Stamens. 2. Pistil and hypogynous cup : — magnified. 


Wiixch del 

^ncent ^odks Imp- 

Tab. 4949. 


Oblong-leaved St. Johns-wort. 

Nat. Ord. Hypericine^e. — Polyadelphia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx pentaphyllus vel quinquepartitus, laciniis imbricatis aequali- 
bus vel duabus exterioribus majoribus. Corolla petala 5, hypogyna, calycis folio- 
lis sequalia, Eequilatera vel plus minus inaaquilatera, aestivatione imbricato-convo- 
luta. Stamina plurima, hypogyua, in pbalanges 3 vel 5 collecta aut irregulariter 
polyadelpha, rarius libera, rarissime definita; flamenta filiformia; anthera introrsse, 
biloeulares, didymae, longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Ovarium sessile, nunc unilocu- 
lare, placentis ad suturas tribus vel quinque parietalibus, vel in introflexis carpi- 
diorum marginibus porrectis, nunc 3-5-loculare, marginibus introflexis ad axim 
revolutis plus vel minus coalitis. Ovula plurima, rarissime subdefinita, bi-plu- 
riseriata, horizontalia, anatropa. Styli 3 vel 5, filiformes, liberi vel basi plus 
minus coaliti ; stigmata capitata. Capsula 1-3-5-locularis, rarissime indebiscens, 
subbaccata, alias septicide 3-5-valvis, placentis suturalibus valvarum marginibus 
adhserentibus vel solutis, vel centralibus in columnam indivisam vel partibilem 
coalitis. Semina in loculis plurima, rarissime pauca, vel abortu solitaria, cylin- 
drico-oblonga, recta vel incurva ; testa Crustacea, scrobiculata, nucleum arete ves- 
tiens, vel laxa, reticulato-cellulosa, nucleum multo minorem includens, endopleurm 
membranaceaa strato interiore subcornoso. Embryo exalbuminosus, orthotropus, 
cylindricus ; cotyledonibus brevibus, obtusis, radicula umbilico proxima. — Herbse 
vel suffrutices, in regionibus temperatis et calidioribus totius orbis, maximo numero 
in temperatis calidioribus hemisp/Ksrce borealis crescentes ; foliis oppositis, petio- 
latis, sessilibus vel amplexicaulibus, integerrimis vel interdum subserrukttis, sapis- 
sime pellucido-punctatis, stipulis nullis ; floribus solitariis, cymosis, corymbosis, 
paniculatis vel rarius umbellatis,flavi$. Endl. 

Hypekicum (§ Ascyria) oblongifolium ; fruticosum, ramosum, ramis teretibus, 
foliis sessilibus ovatis seu oblongo-ovatis obtusis minute pellucido-punctatis 
subtus glaucis, corymbis amplis di-trichotome divisis multiflons fohosis (fo- 
liis parvis), calycis sepalis basi coalitis obovatis concavis submaequalibus 
denticulatis, petabs magnis insequilateris subrotundatis hinc margine denti- 
eulatis, staminibus numerosissimis pentadelphis, stylis 5 hbens apice recur- 

Hypericum oblongifolium. Choisy, Prodr. Hyper, p. 42. t. 4. Wall. Plant. Bar. 
Asiat. v. 3. t. 244. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 545. 

A truly lovely hardy shrub, with evergreen foliage, and large 
handsome yellow blossoms; a native of northern India, ftepal, 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

and the Himalayas, at elevations of from 6-12,000 feet. Mr. 
William Lobb found it on hills about Mufflong, Assam, and 
introduced it to the nursery of Messrs. Veitch and Son at Exeter 
and Chelsea. We think that so ornamental a plant will soon 
find its way into every garden and every shrubbery. Neither of 
the two figures we have quoted does justice to the beauty of 
this plant. 

Descr. A small, rather compact shrub, with red-brown terete 
woody branches. Leaves, among the largest of the genus, two 
to four inches long, evergreen, exactly ovate or approaching to 
oblong, sessile, obtuse, minutely pellucido-punctate, penninerved, 
dark green above, pale and glaucous beneath, and dotted, even 
when not held between the eye and the light. Corymbs large, 
terminal on the branches, bearing copious, large and rich, almost 
golden-yellow flowers ; the branches of the panicle are di- or tri- 
chotomous, leafy, but the leaves gradually smaller and subbrac- 
teiform as they approach the flowers, all opposite. Calyx of five 
large, lax, obovate, concave sepals, united at their base, the 
somewhat membranous margin denticulate. Petals very large, 
subrotund, but more or less obliquely cuneate and inequilateral, 
imbricated, concave, rather firm, the margin more or less entire 
or denticulate. Stamens very numerous, collected into five pha- 
langes or bundles, each set united at their base : filaments slender, 
yellow : anthers orange-yellow, small, subglobose. Ovary broad- 
ovate, tapering upwards, and terminating in five styles, which 
are recurved at the apex. Btigma obtuse, downy. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. One of the five bundles of stamens: — magnified. 


"WliLch ad. a, Mi. 

I P 

"feicei* brooks fa* 

Tab. 4950. 


Striated-leaved Agave. 

Nat. Ord. Amaryllide.e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4934.) 

Agave striata ; acaulis, foliis patentibus rectiusculis numerosissimis rigido-car- 
nosis elongatis linearibus sensim attenuatis (transverse sectis subrhombeo- 
ancipitibus) subglaucis superne longitudinaliter pluristriatis margine scabris 
apice spinescente, scapo centrali elongato foliis duplo triplove longiore brac- 
teato bracteis patentibus, spica longissima densiflora, floribus geminatis ses- 
silibus, bracteis e lata basi longe subulatis, capsulis subbaccatis brevi-ovatis 
obtuse triquetris nigris. 

Agave striata. Zucc. in Nov. Act. Acad. Leopold. Carol. 16. 2. p. 678. Salm- 
Dyck, Hort. 1814. p. 307. " Roem. Am. 286." 

There can be no question that this plant, which we have re- 
ceived from Real del Monte, Mexico, is nearly allied to Agave 
geminiflora, Gawl. (see Bot. Reg. t. 1145), but the foliage is dif- 
ferent in the form (as best seen by a transverse section), and the 
two are quite distinct. Three species of this group of Agave, with 
very narrow linear but gradually attenuated leaves, are described 
by authors ; viz. Agave geminiflora, Gawl. (too long known in our 
gardens under the false name of Bonapartea juncea) ; A. striata, 
Zucc, which we believe to be the species here figured ; and A. 
recurva, Zucc. The two last appear to be hitherto unknown in 
the flowering state. Of the first, A. geminiflora, I would observe 
that this is described as having the leaves filamentous at their 
margins, although no figure, that we have seen, gives that ap- 
pearance (I have no access to " Tagliabue, in Bibliotheca Ital. l. 
t. 100"). Dr. Lindley describes them " marginibus per atatem 
filamentosis." The oldest plant however, under the name of A. 
geminiflora, in our gardens, shows no appearance whatever of 
filaments: but, on the other hand, we have lately received a 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

young plant under the name of "A. yeminiflora, filamentosa," 
quite remarkable for its copious filaments : so that it is probable 
the plant of English gardens, at least, is not the true geminiflora, 
or else the plant varies remarkably in the absence or presence of 
these filaments. From the two species to which I have now al- 
luded, our plant may be recognized by the foliage alone : in them 
the leaves are, comparatively, soft and flaccid ; there are no strise, 
there is no scabrous margin, and the surface is dark green, mi- 
nutely dotted with a pale, closely adherent scurf, only visible 
under a lens. Our A. striata has flowered during the present 
year, for the first time. 

Descr. Stemless or nearly so. Leaves very numerous, from 
a short trunk or caudex, which is entirely clothed by them, two 
to two and a half feet long, from a broad base, linear, very rigid, 
tapering gradually to the apex, which is terminated by a horny 
brown point, extremely pungent. In substance the leaf is thick ; 
a transverse section gives a compressed rhomboid figure, within 
spongy, but full of fibre ; externally the surface is glaucous-green, 
marked with rather closely placed, parallel lines ; the margin is 
rough, with a very narrow cartilaginous edge, which is minutely 
serrated. The younger and central leaves are erect, the lowest 
ones recurved, the intermediate ones horizontally patent, but 
with a slight recurvation. Scape arising from the centre of the 
foliage, rather stout, four to six feet long, terminated by a long 
spike, of densely compacted flowers, imbricated in the bud and 
elongating as the flowers expand, so that the apex attains a 
height of ten to twelve feet from the ground. The scape, below 
the spike, has numerous, spreading, long, filiform or subulate 
scales, two to three inches long ; these are flowerless bracts : the 
same, but smaller and green, subtend the flowers. These latter 
are in pairs, sessile ; green externally, yellowish-green within. 
Perianth infundibuliform. The six segments ovate, moderately 
spreading. Filaments of the stamen stout, almost thrice as long 
as the corolla. Anthers large, linear, dark purple. Ovary, com- 
bined with the perianth, obscurely three-angled. Style thick, as 
long as the filaments. Stigma obscurely three-lobed, downy. 
Capsule subbaccate, short ovate, black, terminated by the wi- 
thered perianth, obtusely trigonous, three-celled : cells with many 
very glossy black seeds. 

Fig. 1. Entire plant, on a very reduced scale. 2. Apex of a leaf: — nat. size. 
3. Transverse section of a leaf: — magnified. 4. Portion of a rachis of the spike 
with flowers : — mt. size. 5. Section of the ovary : — magnified. 


W Etch ad.*. Mi. 

Tmcent Brooks M" 

Tab. 4951. 

PACHYPHYTUM bracteosum. 
Bract ea ted Pachyphytum. 

Nat. Ord. Crassulace^e. — Decandkia Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Pachyphytum, Kl. — Calyx campanulatus, quinquepartitus, laciniis 
insequalibus, filiformibus, corollam superantibus. Corolla perigyna, quinquepar- 
tita, bypocrateriinorpha, lirnbi lobis patentissirois, in fauce acl marginem dilatato- 
involutis, cucullato-bilobis. Stamina 10, quorum 5 calyci, 5 petalis imposita, 
sequilonga, exserta. Squamulce nulla?. Germina 5, libera, unilocularia ; ovulis ad 
suturam ventralera plurimis. Capsules folliculares 5, in stylos subulatos attenuata?, 
libera, intus longitudinaliter dehiscentes, polyspermae. Semina minima, elongato- 
scobiformia. — Suft'rutex Mexicanus, carnosus, glaucescenti-albidus. Caulis brevis, 
crassus. Polia rosulata, magna, obovato-cuneiformia, crassa, carnosa, obtuse apicn- 
lata. Flores secundi, dense spicati, bracteati; spica apice cernua ; bracteis mag- 
nis, crassis, obovatis, brevissime acutis, basi sagittatis, unilateraliter bifariam im- 
bricatis. Corolla? limbus coccineus. Kl. 

Pachyphytum bracteosum. 

Pachyphytum bracteosum. Klotzsch in Otto et Dieir. Allgemeine Gartenzeilung, 
Vter Jahrgang, p. 9. Klotzsch in Ic. Plant. Ear. Sort. Berol. p. 107. t. 43. 

This is a solitary species of a new genus, an inhabitant of 
Mexico, allied to Echeveria, but sufficiently distinct both m 
habit and in the structure of the flowers, and very remarkable 
in the curved, secund, bracteated spikes of flowers, in the large 
campanulate calyx, much exceeding the corolla in length, in the 
two spurs at the base of the leaves, of the peduncle, and of the 
bracteas, and in the two scales or ears at the base of the lamina of 
the petals. There is a most striking contrast between the colour 
of these petals and the pale glaucous hue of the large calyx and 
bracts, and all the rest of the plant ; and the flowers are more 
readily brought into view by the curvature of the spikes. The 
plant only requires the protection of a temperate greenhouse. 
It flowers in the summer months, and the spike becomes erect 
after flowering. 

Descr. A suffruticose, very succulent plant .- the rather short 


and thick stem scarred below with the fallen leaves, and, as well as 
the rest of the plant, singularly glaucous. Leaves large, thick, 
fleshy, spreading, clothing the upper part of the stem, rosulate, 
obovate, obtuse or with only an obtuse point, slightly concave 
above, convex beneath, the base, where set upon the stem, di- 
lated : the scars formed by the fallen leaves, orbicular. Peduncles 
lateral, from among the leaves, erect, a foot or more long, sparingly 
leafy : its bracteal-leaves oblong or tongue-shaped, subsemiam- 
plexicaul, often tinged with red, the base on each side prolonged 
into a spur. Spike four to six inches or more long, singularly 
drooping in flower, eventually erect. Flowers secund, large, sub- 
tended by large imbricating cordate bracteas, but in the op- 
posite direction to the bracts : these bracteas are also bicalcarate 
at the base. Pedicels very short, thick. Calyx ample, almost an 
inch long, campanulate, deeply cut into five, ovate-oblong, glau- 
cous, fleshy, subfoliaccous unequal segments. Petals five, erecto- 
patent, oblong, acuminate : at the summit of the broad claw are 
two obtuse, conspicuous auricles. Limb of the corolla red. Sta- 
mens : five free, alternating with the petals; five smaller ones, 
with short filaments, adnate with the petals. Anthers ovate. 
Ovaries five, oblong, with a fleshy disc at their base. Styles 
short, subulate. Stigmas capitate. 

Pig. 1. Flower from which the calyx is removed. 2. Petal and two stamens: 
— magnified. 


WBtdi dd.etlith. 

lucent Brooks Inf- 

Tab. 4952. 

Broad-leaved Leperiza. 

Nat. Ord. Amaryllide;e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perigonium superum, corollaceum, rectum, e tubo cylindraceo brevi 
stricto campanulatura, 6-fidum, deciduum; laciniis ovatis, acutiusculis, subae- 
qualibus, erectis. Corona fa ucialis tubulosa, abbreviata, 6-dentata, iuclusa, inter 
dentes staminifera. Stamina snbsequalia, erecta, exserta. Anthera oblongfe, dorso 
medio affixae, incumbentes. Ovarium inferuni, abbreviato-ovatum, tricoccum. 
Columna stylina erecta, stamina superans, filiformis. Stigma parvum, obsolete 
trigonum. Semina plurima, parva, oblongo-subrotunda. — Herba Americana, 
bulbifera, scapigera : bulbo tuuicato. Folia coatanea (mtimlia) , petiolata, ob- 
longa, acuta, striato-tiervosa, nitida. Scapus erectus, teres, umbellato-midhflorus. 
Spatha polyphylla ; foliolis sublanceolatis, marcescentibus. Plores pedicellati, pen- 
duli. Kth. 

Leperiza latifolia. 

Leperiza latifolia. Herb. App. p. 41. Ej. Amaryll. p. 195. Kth. Enum. 

Plant, v. h.p. 643. 
Chrysiphiala latifolia. Lindl. in Schult. Sgst. v. 7. p. 906. 
Pancratium latifolium. Ruiz et Pav. EL Perm-, v. 3. p. 54. t. 284. 

An ornamental South American bulbiferous plant, native of 
moist, shady, woody places, in the Province of Tarma, Andes ot 
Peru : detected by Ruiz and Pavon, and described by them 
under the name of Pancratium latifolium, in their * Flora Peru- 
viana ;' and of which bulbs were sent to us by our friend John 
McLean, Esq., late of Lima. Dr. Lindley suggested that it 
should be united with Chrysiphiala; but the learned author ot 
the 'AmaryUidacea has constituted of it the genus Leperiza, ot 
which it forms the sole species. The plant is kept in an ordinary 
greenhouse, where it blossoms in September. 

Descr. Bulb moderately large, tunicated, externally brown 
and striated, somewhat scaly at the top, from whence the leaves 
(two to four) appear : these are on rather long, broad, channelled 
petioles; the blade is broad-oval or elliptical, acute, striated, sub- 
membranaceous, glabrous, almost a span long, four to four and 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

a half inches wide. Scape about a foot high, terete, bearing an 
umbel of six to eight drooping flowers from the dilated apex of 
the scape. Spathe of a few, membranaceous, lanceolate, sca- 
riose leaflets, two inches or more long. Pedicels about as long 
as the spathe, curved in flower, nearly erect in fruit. Flowers 
pendent, two and a half inches long, including the ovary. Peri- 
anth infundibuliform, yellow, partially tinged with dull orange, 
green at the apices : tube about equal in length with limb : seg- 
ments of the limb erect. Corona simply consisting of six, short, 
erect, rounded teeth at the apex of the tube, between which the 
stamens are placed. Filaments erect, longer than the limb of 
the perianth, consequently exserted. Anthers oblong, versatile. 
Ovary inferior, globoso-trilobed, dark green. Style longer than 
the stamens, straight ; stigma of three minute lobes. 

Fig. 1. Flower with the perianth laid open, showing the corona and insertion 
of the stamens. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 



Tincmt Brocks Imp 

Tab. 4953. 
CASTANEA chrysophylla, 

Golden -leaved CI/ est n at. 

Xat. Ord. ClTPrjLIFER.E. — MoXffiCIA OcTANDRIA. 

Gen. Char. Flores rnonoici v. rarissirae hermaphroditi. Masc. indefinite glo- 
merati, raches axillares circumsedentes, rarius solitarii, bracteolati. Perigonium 
calycinum profunde 5-6-partitum. Stamina 8-15, basi perigonii circa discum 
glandulosum inserta ; flamenta filiformia, elongata, siroplicia ; antheree 2-loculares, 
incumbentes, loculis oppositis. Fcem. et Hermaphr. Gemma axillares, subsoli- 
tariae, bracteis plurimis linearibus, inaequalibus, cum involucro campanulato 1-3- 
floro connatis. Perigonii limbm superus, 5-8-fidus. Stamina 5-12, saspissime 
abortiya, minima. Ovarium inferum, 3-6-loculare. Omla in loculis solitaria, 
ex apice anguli centralis pendula, anatropa. Stylus brevissimus, crassus : stig- 
mata loculorum numero, setiformia, patentia. Fructus capsuliformis, involucro 
coriaceo echinato, nuculis duabus, tribus v. unica foeto. Nucula ovato-trigonae 
v. subangulatae, monospermae ; epicarpio coriaceo, eudocarpio fibrose Semen 
pendulum ; testa membranacea, plicis intra nuclei rimas sese insinuans. Embryo 
exalbuminosus, orthotropus ; cotgledonibus maximis crassis farinaceis, saepe inae- 
qualibus, plicatis, arete cohaerentibus ; radicula immersa supera. — Arbores v. ar- 
busculae elegantes, in Europa australi, Asia media, in America boreali et in excelsis 
Archipelagi Moluccani montibus indigent; foliis alternis integerrimis v. serratis, 
floribus coataneis. Endl. 

Castakea chrysophylla ; foliis sempervirentibus oblongo-ovatis acumiuatis co- 

riaceis integerrimis glabris subtus aureo-farinosis. 
Castanea chrysophylla. Dougl. in Hook. El. Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 159. Hook, in 

Lond. Journ. of Bot. v. 2 (1843), p. 496. 

One of the greatest rarities perhaps in the Arboretum of the 
Royal Gardens of Kew, is the subject of the present Plate, — a 
Chestnut with the under side of the leaves of a pale golden hue, 
occasioned by the presence of innumerable minute peltate scales 
of that colour. Specimens of the plant probably exist in the 
herbaria of many botanists ; for the tree was discovered so long 
ago as 1830, by Mr. David Douglas, about the grand rapids of 
the Columbia (Oregon), Cape Orford, and near Mount Hood, in 
North-west America, constantly inhabiting the hills ; and it has 
since been found by travellers in California, especially by Burke 
and Hartweg, and these collectors were able to send seeds to 

OECKMBEK ] ST, 185(5. 

Europe, of which very few indeed appear to have germinated. 
Our solitary plant was reared from a seed gathered by Burke : 
and, although now only about five feet high, it has for several 
years produced spikes of flowers, and these, in one instance, were 
succeeded the following year (1856) by several fruits of the size 
here represented, but which fell off before they were mature. 
The tree bears our severest winters perfectly unharmed. 

Descr. This is said by Douglas to form a beautiful tree in its 
native country, varying in height from twenty to seventy feet. 
We make our description from our own small plant above men- 
tioned, which is branched almost to the base, the young branches 
tawny or golden -colour. Leaves, the smallest of the Chestnut- 
kind, two and a half to three inches long, shortly petiolate, ovato- 
oblong, acuminate, coriaceous, entire, glabrous, very dark green 
and somewhat glossy above ; beneath clothed with dense, minute, 
farinaceous scales of a golden-yellow colour. Spikes of flowers 
from the axils of the upper or terminal leaves, as long as, or 
shorter than, the leaves, on short peduncles. Male flowers occu- 
pying the upper half, numerous, crowded ; female flowers one to 
three or five, distant, scattered at the base, all sessile. Male 
flowers : — Perianth cup-shaped, small, villous, six-cleft, three 
lobes external; three inner less villous than the outer ones. 
Stamens ten to twelve or thirteen : filaments long, flexuous, 
much longer than the perianth. Female flowers, accom- 
panied by some imperfect stamens. Perianth as in the male. 
Ovary having its base incorporated with the perianth, very 
hispid, dividing above into three glabrous styles. These ova- 
ries remained the whole winter on the plant ; and during the 
following summer became a three-lobed frui t of the size repre- 
sented at fig. 5, and then fell off immature before the autumn. 
It is three-lobed, and very prickly, as in Castanea vesca. 

Fig. 1. Female flower. 2. Pistil removed from the perianth. 3. Male flower. 
4. Stamen and inner lobe of the perianth: — magnified. 5. Immature fruit :— 
nat. size. 6. Scale, and portion of another scale, constituting the golden fari- 
naceous substance on the under side of the leaves : — magnified. 

WRTdi (U.eOith 

"VEbcent 3to3a 

Tab. 4954. 
SINNINGIA Youngiana. 

Dr. Young's Sinningia. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace;E. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Sinningia, Nees ah Esenb. — Gen. C/iar. emend. Calyx campanulatus, ple- 
ruraque 5-alatus. Corolla tubus subtus dorsoque varie gibbus vel inflatus. 
Stigma storaatomorphum. — Suffrutices Americae tropicae, rhizomate tuberoso, per- 
ennes. Hanstein in Linnaa, v. 26. p. 204. 

Ligeria, Bene.— Gen. Char, emend. Calyx patulus, exalatus. Corolla tubus 
oblique ventricoso-carapanulatus (ex basi angustata sursum paullatim ampliatus). 
Stigma stomatomorphum. — Herbae Americae tropicae, rhizomate tuberoso, per- 
ennes. Hanstein in Linnaa, v. 26. p. 204. 

Sinningia (bybrida) Youngiana; pubescens, rhizomate tuberoso, caule herbaceo 
erecto purpurascente, foliis oppositis petiolatis oblongis vel ovato-oblongis 
acutis margine crenatis supra nitidis viridibus subtus pallidionbus, flonbus 
axillaribus vel terminalibus solitariis amplis, pedunculis petiolo duplo tri- 
plove superantibus, calyce 5-alato, laciniis 5 ovatis acuminata, corollae 
(purpureae vel violacefe) tubo ex basi angustato sursum paullatim ampliato, 
limbo 5-fido, lobis subsequalibus rotundatis patentibus, stammibus inclusis, 
antheris cormexis, ovario glandulas 5 subulatas cingente, stigmate stomato- 

Sinningia Youngiana. Marnock in Paxtons Magazine of Botany, v.l.p.H- 
cum icon. 

Sinningia violacea. Hortor. 

Gloxinia violacea. Pope. Steudel, Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2. p. 690 ? 

If we were to adopt the strictly scientific nomenclature pro- 
posed by Dr. Klotzsch, and approved of by various Continental 
botanists of eminence, we should be obliged to confer upon this 
plant the name of Sinningia Ligeria velulina speciosa, so as to 
show that it is a hybrid between Sinningia velutma, Wees ab 
Esenb., ? , and Ligeria speciosa, Dene. (Gloxinia speciosa, Lodd.) 
<?; but as such a name, however well answering the purposes of 
science, would never become popular, or could never be adopted 
in our gardens without causing considerable inconvenience, we 
have retained the older, though less expressive one binmngta 
Youngiana was raised some years ago by Mr. Marnock, and 
named by him in compliment to Dr. Young, Superintendent ot 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

the Botanic Garden at Sheffield. Apart from the claims upon 
our attention on account of its ornamental blossoms, it is inter- 
esting as being a hybrid between the two most typical species 
of two different geuera, having the thick tuberous rhizome and 
the tube of the corolla of Liberia, and the five-wiuged calyx of 

Descr. Pubescent. Rhizome tuberous, several inches in dia- 
meter. Stem herbaceous, erect, purplish, from one foot to 
eighteen inches high. Leaves opposite, petiolated, oblong or 
ovate, oblong, crenated, green and glossy above, pale, almost 
whitish, below. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary. Peduncle 
twice or three times the length of the petiole. Calyx five- winged, 
five-lobed ; lobes ovate, acuminate. Corolla with a campanulate 
tube, and five, almost equal, round lobes, more or less intensely 
purple or violet, with the exception of the tube, which is a yellow- 
ish-white at the base, and at the throat, which is spotted. Ovary 
surrounded by five subulate glands. Stamens shorter than the 
tube of the corolla and the style. Stigma two-lipped. Ovules 
sterile. Berthold Seemann. 

Fig. 1. Ovary, style, and stigma: — slightly magnified. 


"\Sncent liroaks Imp 

Tab. 4955. 
TRICYRTIS pilosa. 

Hairy Tricyrtis. 

Nat. Ord. Uvularie^e. — Hexandria Trigynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 6-sepalus, corollaceus, regularis, deciduus ; sepala distincta, 
oblonga, apice acuminata et cucullato-excavata, campanulato-conniventia ; tria 
exteriora 7-nervia, basi gibboso-saccata ; tria interioria 5-nerva. Stamina 6, basi 
sepalorum inserta, sequalia. Filamenta subulata, compressa,basi dilatata ac subcon- 
nata, glabra. Anthera biloculares, ellipticse, complanatse, apice retusas, basi bilobse, 
dorso intus spectante versus medium affixaj, externe secundum longitudinem 
dehiscentes. Ovarium liberum, sessile, elongatum, triquetrum, triloculare, apice 
in stylum brevem attenuatum ; ovula in loculis creberrima, biseriata, subhorizon- 
talia, anatropa. Stigmata 3, apice biloba, recurvata. Capsula triquetro-pris- 
matica, trilocularis, apice trivalvis. Semina parva, in loculis per simplicem (?) 
seriem densissime imbricata, ovata, plana, atra ; teste laxiuscula, rugosa. Embryo 
minutus, in albuminis carnosi cavitate submucosa hilo opposita locatus. — Herbae 
subtiliter pilosa. Caulis erectus, foliatus, apice ramosus et pauciflorus. Folia 
sparsa, ovata-oblonga, cordata, sesdlia, amplexantia, acuminata, reticulato-nervosa 
(?), membranacea. Flores in ramis solitarii vel gemini, longe pedunculati, cernui, 
virescente-albi, intus maculis crebris purpureis notati, inodori; pedicellis inarticu- 
latis. Kth. 

Tricyrtis pilosa. 

Tricyrtis pilosa. Wall. Tent. Fl. Nepal, v. 2. p. 52, p. 46. Roem. et Schult. 
Syst. Veget. v. 17. p. 1680. Kunth, Enum. Plant, v. 4. p. 279. 

Campsoa maculata. Eon, Prodr. El. Nepal. 51. 
Compsanthus maculatus. Spreng. Syst. Veget. Cura Post. 137. 
Uvularia hirta? Thunb. Jap. 36. Willd. Sp. PI. 2. p. 137. Roem. et Schult. 
Syst. Veget. v. 7. p. 370. 

If this is not a plant which strikes the eye from its beauty, it 
can scarcely fail to do so from the peculiar form and colouring 
of the flowers. Dr. Wallich, its discoverer, thinks it may be 
identical with the Uvularia hirta of Thunberg ; if so, it is a na- 
tive of Japan as well of Himalaya, in the mountains of Sheo- 
pore and Chandagiry, where Dr. Wallich saw it; but it has 
probably an extensive range in Himalaya, for it is abundant in 
Sikkim-Himalaya, where Drs. Hooker and Thomson detected it, 
and whence they sent seeds to the Royal Gardens of Kew. The 

DECEMBER 1ST. 1855. 

figure in the ' Tentamen Florae Nepalensis ' is extremely accu- 
rate ; but our artist represents two rows or series of ovules in 
each cell, while Dr. Wallich figures and describes only one : the 
former we suspect to be the correct number. 

Descr. Boot a small irregular tuber, throwing out many 
branched fibres. Stems herbaceous, a foot or more high, branched, 
terete, pubescent, as in nearly the whole plant, with glandular 
hairs. Leaves alternate, distant, cordato-ovate, shortly acumi- 
nate, entire, soft and downy, semiamplexicaul at the base, and 
there forming a very short sheath; nerves obliquely parallel. 
Peduncles in pairs, terminating the stem and branches, one bear- 
ing a small leaf or bractea, downy. Flowers solitary, erect. Se- 
pals six, at first erect, and forming a campanulate blossom, then 
spreading horizontally, of a whitish-green colour, internally 
spotted or blotched with purple, lanceolate, glabrous within ; the 
three outer with a large sac or gibbous pouch at the base, the 
three inner ones merely cucullate. Stamens inserted opposite to 
the sepals, erect, but flexuose, glandular at the base. Anther 
oblong, extrorse. Ovary prismatic, trigonous, glandular at the 
top. Style simple at the base, soon dividing into three spread- 
ing branches, and then again bifid, spotted with purple, and 
beautifully glanduloso-pilose. Fruit, according to Dr. Wallich, 
a triquetro-prismatic capsule, the side channelled, three-valved, 
the valves short, plicate, narrow ; the dissepiments formed by the 
inflexed margins of the valves. 

Fig. 1. Outer sepal. 2. Inner sepal. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil. 5. Transverse 
section of ditto : — magnified. 


Tab. 4956. 

linum grandiflorum. 

Large-flowered Flax. 

Nat. Ord. LiNEiE. — Decandria Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx pentaphyllus, foliolis integris. Corolla petala 5, hypogyna, 
ima basi coalita, alterna calycis foliolis opposita fertilia, basi biglandulosa, alterna 
petalis opposita ananthera, dentiformia. Filamenta complanato-subulata ; antherce 
introrsse, biloculares, longitudiualiter debiscentes. Ovarium sessile, 3-5-loculare; 
loculis 2-ovulatis, semisepto dorsali verticaliter incomplete bilocellatis, v. septo 
dorsali completo 10-loculare, loculis 1-ovulatis. Ovula pendula, anatropa. Styli 
3 v. 5, filiformes, liberi vel basi coaliti ; stigmata capitellata v. linearia. Capsula 
subglobosa, nunc 3-5-locularis, loculis septo dorsali verticaliter semi-bilocellatis, 
apice septicide 3-5-valvis, valvis semi-bifidis, loculis dispermis, nunc 10-loeularis 
septicide decacocca, coccis indebiscentibus, monospermis. Semina pendula, testa 
coriacea, endopleura carnosa, turnida. Embryonis exalbuminosi recti vel subar- 
cuati radicula supera. — Herbse vel suffrutices in temperatis totius orbis crescentes, 
inter tropicos rari ; foliis alternis oppos'dis v. verticillatis, integerrimis ; floribus 
paniculatis v. corymbosis, luteis, cceruleis, carneis, v. albis. Endl. 

Linum grandijiorum ; annuum, e basi ramosum erectiusculum, foliis (ramorum) 
sparsis rernotis ovato-lanceolatis patentibus, floribus laxe paniculatis, sepalis 
lanceolato-subulatis marginibus setoso-ciliatis, stigmatibus linearibus, pe- 
talis calyce plus quam duplo longioribus puniceis. 

Linum grandiflorum. Besf. Fl. Atl. v. 1. p. 277. t. 78. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 1. 
p. 427. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 962. Rcem. et Schult. v. 6. p. 738. 
Planck, in Hook. Lond. Joum. of Bot. v. 7. p. 171. Lindl. et Paxt. Fl. 
Gard. v. 1. p. 27. /. 13 {woodcut). 

Nothing but a well-coloured figure, which has never hitherto 
appeared, can give an idea of the beauty of this plant. The 
plate of Desfontaines does justice to the size of the blossom; 
that given in the 'Flower Garden' is not so large as one of its 
petals. The wild state is described as having rose-coloured 
flowers : ours are, as recorded by Lindley and Paxton, "brilliant 
crimson." The species inhabits the north of Africa ; near Mas- 
car (Desfontaines) and near Oran, according to Mr. Munby in 
our Herbarium. It has lately been introduced into European 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

gardens from Algiers ; and, though an annual, its beauty will 
recommend it to more extended cultivation, and it is said to 
answer well for flower-borders. Our plants w~ere kept in a cool 
greenhouse, and flowered in August. 

Descr. An annual, ten inches to a foot high, much branched, 
almost from the root. Lowest and youngest leaves somewhat 
crowded and imbricated, the rest distant, patent, ovato-lanceo- 
late, entire, glaucous green. The ultimate branches or peduncles, 
each terminated by a single flower, form a lax panicle. Flotcers 
large. Calyx with the sepals green, erect, imbricated, lanceolato- 
subulate, rigid, the margin membranous, ciliated with rather 
rigid hairs. Petals broadly obovate, clawed, minutely crenulated 
at the edge, of a rich crimson colour, the claws streaked with 
black, and internally with white. Staminal tube rather long, 
cylindrical. Anthers large. Ovary oval, tapering into a thick 
style : stigmas long, linear, downy. 

Fig. 1. Flower deprived of its petals. 2. Staminal tube, including the pistil. 
3. Pistil : — magnified. 

VtRtA •>! p» lr: 

i& a am&&od*Kn£- 

Tab. 4957. 
MELASTOMA denticulatum. 

Toothed Melastoma. 

Nat. Ord. MelastomacejE. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus ovatus, ssepius squamis vestitus : limbus 5- aut ra- 
rius 4-6-fidus, lobis deciduis, appendicibus extus inter lobos interdum ut in Os- 
beckia ortis parvis. Petala tot quot calycis lobi. Stamina szepius numero peta- 
lomm dupla, rarius aequali. Antherts connectivo in aliis elongato, in alternis 
breviore, basi bicalcarato aut bisetoso. Stigma, punctum pruinosum. Capsula 
baccata, 5-locularis (rarius 4-6-locularis). Semina cochleata. — Prutices Asiatici 
aut Africani, sapius hispide setosi. Folia petiolata, integerrima aut serrulata, 3-7- 
nervia. Pedunculi axillares aut terminates. Fdores ampli, albi rosei aut pur- 
purei. Be Cand. 

Melastoma denticulatum ; fruticosum, ramulis e compresso teretiusculis petio- 
lisque setis adpressis, scabris foliis petiolatis ovali-oblongis acuminatis 5- 
nerviis superue setis parvis scabris subtus pallidis secus nervos adpresse 
strigosis, floribus paucis subcymosis, calycis urceolati adpresse strigosi lobis 
(ovato-) lanceolatis deciduis. Be Cand. 

Melastoma denticulatum. Labill. Sert. Caled. p. 65. t. 64. Be Cand. Prodr. 
v. 3. p. 44. Naudin, Melast.p. 160. 

An inhabitant of New Caledonia, where it was discovered by 
Labillardiere, during the voyage in search of La Peyrouse, and 
it was accurately figured and described in the ' Sertum Austro- 
Caledonicum ' of that author. It has been receutly introduced 
into Europe by the botanist of Captain Denham's Surveying 
Voyage (Mr. Milne), who sent seeds gathered in New Caledonia 
to the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it flowers freely in July and 
August. We presume that M. Naudin, author of the learned 
monograph of Melastomacea, intends this to be considered a true 
Melastoma, though he places it in a group of "species addenda; ; 
multce autem incertse : but Walpers, apparently copying from 
Naudin, speaks of the species of the section as " adhuc incertae." 
This species must surely have been well known to M. Naudin, 
both by the figure of Labillardiere and by specimens in the Paris 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1856. 

Descr. A moderately small shrub, a good deal branched, the 
branches subangular and, as well as the petioles (from one-half to 
three-quarters of an inch long), reddish, rough, with appressed 
setse. Leaves rather large for the size of the plant, handsome, 
broadly ovate, or ovate-lanceolate (superior ones almost lanceo- 
late), subcoriaceous, acuminate, entire, five-nerved, nerves united 
by transverse veins, dark green above, pale beneath ; on both 
sides, especially beneath, strigose, with appressed, subulate setse. 
Corymbs few-flowered (four to six), terminal, leafy, bracteated ; 
bracts and pedicels reddish. Calyx with the tube urceolate, 
clothed with appressed, imbricated, small, fimbriated scales : limb 
of five or six, ovato-lanceolate, apiculate, deciduous, fringed or 
ciliated lobes : mouth of the calyx with five or six erect teeth or 
scales. Petals nearly white. Stamens : f laments rather short : 
anthers unequal, opening by a single pore at the apex, wrinkled 
on one side, bicalcarate or rather bigibbose at the base. Ovary 
below adnate with the tube of the calyx, setose at the apex: 
style about as long as the stamens, inclined and flexuose. 

Fig. 1. Portion of a leaf, showing the strigose setae. 2. Calyx, including the 
pistil. 3. Two of the stamens. 4. One of the appressed scales of the tube of 
the calyx : — magnified. 


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Twelfth 
Volume of the Third Series (or Eighty-second Volume of 
the Work) are alphabetically arranged. 


4891 iEschynanthus fulgens. 
4934 Agave Celsii. 

4950 striata. 

4899 Aphelandra variegata. 

4897 Aralia papyrifera. 

4940 Argyreia hirsuta. 
4918 Aristolochia Thwaitesii. 

4911 Asplenium Hemionitis. 

4906 Banksia Victoriae. 
4929 Calceolaria violacea. 
4953 Castanea chrysophylla. 
4009 Cattleya bicolor. 

4902 maxima. 

4916 ■ Skinneri; var. parviflora 

4922 Clavija ornata. 

4895 Clivia Gardeni. 

4942 Codonopsis rotundifolia. 

4917 Coffea Benghalensis. 
4927 Collinsia verna. 

4912 Correa cardinalis. 

4907 Cymbidium chloranthum. 
4901 Cypripedium purpuratum. 
4937 Dendrobium Amboinense. 

4898 bigibbum. 

4944 Falconeri. 

4903 Encephalartus Caffer. 

4948 Galipea macrophylla. 
4933 Heterotropa asaroides. 

4949 Hypericum oblongifolium. 

4892 Lapageria rosea; var. albifiora. 
4905 Laelia acuminata. 

4952 Leperiza latifolia. 
4956 Linum grandiflorum. 

4941 Lysimachia nutans. 
4921 Masdevallia Wageneriana. 


4957 Melastoma denticulatum. 
4938 Methonica virescens. 
4947 Moricandia Bamburii. 

4945 Mucuna prurita. 

4900 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis. 

4919 Odontoglossumhastilabium; var. 

4923 Odontoglossum membranaceum. 
4943 Orobus Fischeri. 
4894 Ouvirandra fenestralis. 
4951 Pachyphytum bracteosum. 

4946 Pelargonium Endlicherianum. 
4910 Pentapterygium flavum. 

4920 Pernettya furens. 

4913, 4914 Phytelephas macrocarpa. 

4925 Pteris heterophylla. 

4930 Bhododendron BlandfordiEeflo- 



campanulatum ; 

4936 — - 


var. Wallichii. 

4924 ■ Falconeri. 

4926 Hookeri. 

4904 Moulmainense 

4231 Bibes subvestitum. 
4939 Salvia porphyrata. 
4915 Saxifraga ciliata. 

4954 Sinningia Youngiana. 
4896 Tecoma fulva. 

4955 Trycirtis pilosa. 

4908 Tupidanthus calyptratus. 
4893 Weigela amabilis. 


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the 
Twelfth Volume of the Third Series (or Eighty-secend 
Volume of the Work) are alphabetically arranged. 






iEschynanthus, flame-coloured. 
Agave, Cels\ 


Aphelandra, variegated. 
Argyreia, villous. 
Aristolochia, Mr. Thwaites's. 
Banksia, Victorian. 
Calceolaria, pale-purple. 
Cattleya, largest. 
Mr. Skinner's small- 
flowered var. 

Chestnut, golden -leaved. 

Clavija, elegant. 

Clivia, Major Garden's. 

Codonopsis, round-leaved. 

Coffea, Bengal. 

Collinsia, vernal. 

Correa, scarlet-flowered. 

Cow-itch, East Indian. 

Cymbidium, yellow-green. 

Dendrobium, double-spurred. 

Dr. Falconer's. 

long-petaled Am- 


Flax, large-flowered. 

Galipea, large-leaved. 

Heterotropa, Asarum-like. 

and 4914 Ivory Plant, large- 

Jasmine, Night. 

Lady's Slipper, purple-stained. 

Lselia, tapering. 

Lapageria, rose-coloured; white- 
flowered var. 


4952 Leperiza, broad-leaved. 

4941 Lysimachia, drooping-flowered. 

4921 Masdevallia, Mr. Wagener's. 

4938 Methonica, African. 
4947 Moricandia, Rambur's. 

4919 Odontoglossum, halberd-lipped; 

brown-petaled var. 

4923 membrane-sheathed. 

4943 Orobus, Dr. Fischer's. 

4951 Pachyphytum, bracteated. 

4946 Pelargonium, Endlicher's. 

4910 Pentapterygium, yellow. 

4920 Pernettya, maddening. 
4925 Pteris, variable-leaved. 

4928 Rhododendron, bell-flowered ; 
Dr. Wallich's var. 

4930 Blandfordia-flowered. 

4935 Sir James Brooke's. 

4932 Camellia-flowered. 

4936 Mr. Edgeworth's. 

4924 Dr. Falconer's. 

4926 Dr. Hooker's. 

4904 Moulmain. 

4931 Ribes, galndular. 

4897 Rice-paper Plant. 

4939 Sage, bright red-flowered. 
4915 Saxifrage, fringed. 

4954 Sinningia, Dr. Young's. 

4911 Spleenwort, Hemionitis-like. 
4949 St. John's-wort, oblong-leaved. 
4896 Tecoma, fulvous-flowered. 

4955 Tricyrtis, hairy. 

4908 Tupidanthus, calyptrate. 

4894 Water-yam, or Lace-leaf. 

4893 Weigela, wrinkle-leaved.